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Editorial and tagging guidelines

by John Young, Michael Hawkins, and Robert Ralley

Introduction

These Guidelines should be read in conjunction with the accompanying Element set. The Guidelines provide a transcription policy and a broad outline of which tags to use where, while the Element set gives specific details of what exactly is required or permitted in each element and where it may (or may not) be used. The guidelines offer an introduction to the transcription process; the Element set is intended primarily for reference. Between them, these documents are (or at least aim to be) a plain English version of the Casebooks Project schema.

So far as possible, jargon is kept to a minimum, but familiarity has been assumed with certain key XML terms and the means of representing them: principally element (and the distinction between empty and non-empty elements), entity, attribute and attribute value. It is essential that transcribers are entirely clear about these terms, and understand the principle of nesting elements. These terms are not difficult to grasp and are explained in any guide to XML. Newcomers to the language may find the 'Gentle introduction to XML' on the TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) website useful.

A particularly useful tag is the 'comment tag', which transcribers and editors are strongly encouraged to make liberal use of. This takes the form '<!-- -->', and may contain, between the two sets of double dashes, any comment the transcriber wishes to make for in-house purposes on the source or the transcription, e.g. '<!-- the judgment is above the chart - rr -->' or '<!-- what on earth is he on about? - jy -->'. Its contents will not be publicly visible, though it is advisable to avoid anything libellous or obscene. It can be very helpful for proofreaders to be told, for instance, where exactly a particularly well-hidden urine note appears, or why a potentially contentious coding decision has been made. Comment tags can also be used to express any doubts or queries about a particular interpretation, to record the content of event information, to explain the rationale for a conjecture, or in short to convey any information not covered by the tagging as such that may be of use to the editors when reviewing the data. It is helpful for such comments to be signed, as in the above examples, with the relevant commenter's initials.

A number of particular, capitalised, code headings for comment tags are set out on the 'Types of comment tag' page of the project's wiki. The most important ones are <!-- CHECK ORIGINAL --> and <!-- TODO CB ORIG -->, which mean, respectively, that the original document needs to be checked because the available image is deficient in some respect, and that a particular item of metadata will or may have to be supplied or revised once such checking has taken place. These are absolutely indispensable to the person who does the final-checking, as they enable her or him quickly to identify (by means of a global search) which manuscript pages need to be revisited and precisely which pieces of metadata require attention.

Throughout this document, the term 'text string' is used to mean 'any quantity of continuous text': this may be a single letter within a word, a whole word, a sentence, five-and-a-half words, ten paragraphs or whatever.

Please pay especial attention to the instructions concerning spacing around elements. Some of these may look like rules for rules' sake but they are there for a purpose and have important ramifications for the display of the transcribed texts. When reading densely marked-up text in XML, it is alarmingly easy to overlook the presence of a space that should not be there or the absence of one that should be.

In most of the real-life examples cited in these guidelines, some of the tagging used in the original files has been excised, to avoid distraction from the point at issue. For instance, brevigraphs are quoted in expanded form except where the mechanism for expansion is what is being illustrated; errors in the original are silently corrected except where the <sic>/<corr> mechanism is what is being illustrated, and so forth.

Almost all the coding now used in Casebooks Project markup is derived from the TEI Guidelines (version P5), but a number of project-specific elements have been introduced, all beginning 'cb:', e.g <cb:consultation>, <cb:querent>, <cb:subject>, to cater for certain specialised terms crucial to Casebooks methodology. These terms are explained in the Header section of the Guidelines.

The Header (<teiHeader>)

Metadata (information about the electronic file and its contents) is recorded in a <teiHeader> element. This has four components, <fileDesc>, <encodingDesc>, <profileDesc> and <revisionDesc> (always in that order).

I. <fileDesc>

describes the electronic file and its source and consists of the following elements:

1) <titleStmt>, which contains only the element <title>. Once files have been made available online, this is the word CASE followed immediately by the number assigned in the pilot project or subsequently. However, this has no real significance beyond being a unique number by which to identify the case. If another case turns up or we decide that what had been recorded as one case is really two, the new file becomes CASE[whatever the next number in the sequence is at the time]. If we decide that what had been recorded as two cases is really only one, one of the titles simply disappears from the sequence.

Provisional titles are assigned to transcriptions in progress, based on the call number, folio, and sequence on the page (e.g. MS_Ashmole_237-f0153r-3 is the third case (reading first down the left column and then down the right, irrespective of whether or not this equates to the chronological order of the entries) on f. 153r of MS Ashmole 237). These provisional titles are then auto-converted to arbitrary but unique CASE numbers once a given volume has been completed.

2) <publicationStmt>, which contains <publisher> (The Casebooks Project), <pubPlace> (Cambridge) and <date>, with the date expressed in ISO style (yyyy-mm-dd) as the @when value of <date> and spelled out using the formula '01 April 2010' as the content of <date>. The content and @when values of <date> will be auto-generated as files are released online.

3) <notesStmt> (optional), which contains one or more <note>s, which in turn may contain either text or <p> (though it seems unlikely that a note here will run to more than one paragraph: if it does it should probably be two or more <note>s). These notes each take one of the @type values defined in the entry for <note> in the Element Set (and, optionally, a @resp value of # and the relevant editor's @xml:id value if he or she wishes to claim/admit authorship) and can be used to supply more detailed information about the source document or particular problems associated with its transcription, e.g. 'This aborted entry has been given an approximate time and a date based on its position in the manuscript', 'This entry is a note inserted between the question and chart of CASE3884, and the date and time are taken from that entry', 'The manuscript is water-damaged here'.

Where such references to other entries are included, a link should be provided by means of a <ref> element as explained in the entry for <ref> in the Element Set.

There can be no hard and fast rules about what can or cannot be expressed in <notesStmt>, whether in terms of describing the source document itself, its content, or the interpretation of that content. So far as possible, information about both the document itself and its contents should be recorded in the tagging rather than the <notesStmt> but this provides a useful fallback option for at least provisionally recording any supplementary data.

4) <sourceDesc>, consisting of the following:

<bibl type="positionOnPage">: the content of this element records the location of the entry on the page or pages it occupies. Each page is regarded as consisting of up to nine 'zones', designated uL, uC, uR, mL, mC, mR, bL, bC, bR. Here the lower case letters stand for 'upper', 'middle', 'bottom', and the upper case ones for 'left' 'centre' and 'right'. In the majority of cases, no more than four zones are encountered on a given page (upper left, upper right, bottom left and bottom right), but especially in Napier's casebooks, the layouts are quite often more complex than this, especially when he or one of his assistants starts dividing a page (or part of it) into three columns. Hence, uC, mC and bC will be needed relatively rarely, but often enough to make them worth having, and it is not at all uncommon for a given column to be divided into more than two rows.

The content of <bibl type="positionOnPage"> normally refers to the zone in which the record begins, irrespective of whether or not it then proceeds into a lower zone (e.g. from uL to mL or from uR directly into bR). Geometric precision is not the aim: the purpose of this element is to give a general idea of whereabouts on the image to find the entry in question, relative to the other entries on that page. As a rule of thumb, if there are (say) two entries in the left column and three in the right, they can be regarded as uL, bL, uR, mR and bR. In entries on the more complex and chaotic pages, or where there are more than three entries in a given column, the precise content of this element is a matter of editorial judgment,

There are, however, the further options of uS, mS and bS (upper spanning, middle spanning and bottom spanning) for entries that run the full width of the page, for instance CASE23640. This can not have its <bibl type="positionOnPage"> defined as 'bL, bR' as this would mean that it consists of one column in the bottom left and another in the bottom right, whereas it runs seamlessly across all the 'bottom' zones of the page, with no column break(s): this is expressed by 'bS'.

If more than one case begins in the same zone, they can be distinguished as (for instance) uR-1, uR-2, uR-3 etc - following the order the entries were written in (or what seems the most plausible order if there is no concrete evidence).

If, however, an entry is divided by a column break or jumps from one part of the page to another, this needs to be spelled out. Both practitioners quite often begin a case in bL and finish it in bR (i.e. they have divided the page horizontally as well as vertically). In such cases, it is sufficient to record <bibl type="positionOnPage"> as 'bL, bR' (or 'bS' if there is no column break). Napier in particular is prone to scatter the component parts of a given entry around a page in a counter-intuitive order, but provided there is only one page involved, the same procedure can be used, e.g. '<bibl type="positionOnPage">uR-1, bR, bL</bibl>' (where the entry is interrupted by other entries or parts of entries in uR-2 and mR, and it jumps from the right to the left column towards the end).

If the entry occupies more than one page (e.g. CASE1387, which begins in zone bR of MS Ashmole 226 f. 42r and for some reason continues in zone bR of MS Ashmole 226 f. 46r), this needs to be spelled out as '<bibl type="positionOnPage">f. 42r/bR, f. 46r/bR</bibl>'. Similarly, if an entry occupies more than one page and more than one column on one or more of those pages, each new column needs its own full reference, e.g. '<bibl type="positionOnPage">f. 50r/bL, f. 50r/uR, f. 51v/uL</bibl>'.

An <altIdentifier> is also provided (automatically, at the time of the file's creation) to indicate that, for instance, the shelfmark 'MS Ashmole 182' equates to 'Napier volume 2' in Casebooks terminology.

b) <msDesc>, which contains:

i) <msIdentifier>, which in turn contains <country>, <settlement>, <repository> and <idno>. The attribute values (if needed) and content of these elements are auto-generated from existing project documentation, but if component parts of the entry appear on more than one page the content of <idno> requires handcrafting.

The content of <idno> consists of the manuscript number in question and the number(s) of the page(s) on which the entry appears, e.g. 'MS Ashmole 207, f. 104v'. If the manuscript has been paginated rather than foliated, the original page numbers should be cited here, preceded by 'p.' rather than 'f.'.

If the entry runs to more than one page and is in a logical, uninterrupted sequence, the relevant pages should be cited as a range, on one of the following models:

  • f. 246r-v (singular 'f' since only one folio is involved, albeit both sides of it)
  • ff. 246v-247r
  • pp. 246-247

If the entry runs to more than one page and is not in a logical sequence, e.g. it proceeds backwards from f. 246v to f. 246r, or it leapfrogs a page somewhere in the middle, the page or folio numbers given in <idno> should be presented in the order they were intended to be read in (or a best guess at the order they were intended to be read in) and separated by commas, e.g. 'f. 106v, f. 109r'.

ii) <msContents>. This contains <msItem>, which in turn contains <locus> and <title>. These elements, too, are auto-generated from existing project documentation. However, the @from and @to values of <locus> require handcrafting if the component parts of an entry appear on more than one page.

The @from and @to values of <locus> are normally both the same and are the page or folio number in question rendered as a 4-digit string with leading zeros if necessary, and with a suffix of 'r' or 'v' if the document is foliated rather than paginated, e.g. '<locus from="0104v" to="0104v"/>' for an entry in a foliated document, or '<locus from="0104" to="0104"/>' for an entry in a paginated document.

If the entry runs to more than one page and is in a logical, uninterrupted sequence, the @from value is that of the page it begins on and the @to value that of the page it ends on. If it runs to more than one page and is not in a logical sequence, it needs two or more <locus> elements, each defining one of the pages, listed in (what is presumed to be) the intended reading order (see under <locus> in the Element Set for examples).

There are some cases in which the foliation or pagination is itself illogical, e.g. there is no f. 50, there are two f. 50s, or there is an unnumbered folio between f. 50 and f. 51. In the first of these cases, the omitted folio number can simply be omitted from the transcribed texts (i.e. there will be no entries with 'f. 50r' or 'f. 50v' as the content of <idno>, or f0050r or f0050v as the @from or @to value of <locus>). In the latter two, the second page or folio takes the number of the first one with a capital A appended to it (e.g. 'f. 50Ar' or 'p. 50A'). If there are more than two pages or folios with the same number, or more than one unnumbered page or folio between consecutively numbered pages or folios, the second misnumbered or unnumbered page or folio takes the suffix B, and so forth.

II. <encodingDesc>

serves, for Casebooks purposes, solely as a container for <samplingDecl>, which in turn contains (in <p>) a brief, standardised, natural-language statement of the sampling policy followed in the transcription. In the overwhelming majority of cases, this means transcribing only the question section of the entry and merely recording the presence of other sections such as judgment, treatment, urine note etc. In these cases, the appropriate <samplingDecl> will be entered automatically. Where, however, these other sections have been transcribed for whatever reason, or where there are no other sections apart from charts and/or astrological notes, a different <samplingDecl> is called for. All transcribers need to do in such instances is to add an <encodingDesc> between <fileDesc> and <profileDesc>, containing only the entity &wholeEntry;, from which the appropriate declaration will be generated automatically.

III. <profileDesc>

describes the contents of the file and of its source. This is the most important part of the file, and the source for data harvesting. It consists of the following:

1) <handNotes> (mandatory). This in turn contains one or more <handNote> elements, each with a @sameAs value of #sforman or #rnapier, or # followed by the @xml:id value of the scribe as declared in <listPerson>. These point to the <person>(s) in whose hand(s) the transcribed text is written. Hands that only feature in the untranscribed portions should not be recorded in <handNotes>, though it is helpful to note their presence in comment tags. The content of <handNote> is simply the scribe's identity in natural language ('Simon Forman', 'Richard Napier', 'Gerence James', 'Unidentified Hand', or whatever appellation has been decided on for distinguishable but as yet unidentified scribes).

2) <langUsage> (mandatory except in the few cases where the entry has no textual component at all, e.g. it consists solely of a chart). This contains one or more <language> elements, each with the @ident value en, la, el, he, fr or und (English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Undetermined). 'Undetermined' is for entries that did contain text originally but have been damaged to such an extent that it is impossible to determine what language it was in.

Only the languages that feature in the transcription should be listed, not those that appear only in other, untranscribed, parts of the document. Where there is more than one language they should be listed in order of priority: e.g. if the document is primarily in Latin with a few words of English, <language ident="la"> should be the first element in <langUsage>; if the contrary, <language ident="en"> should be.

The various abbreviations of 'ante meridiem', 'in meridie' and 'post meridiem' are being normalised anyway and do not count as 'Latin' for <langUsage> purposes if they occur in otherwise English text. Forman's idiosyncratic term 'questo' appears to mean either 'question' or 'quaestio' according to context, and does not need to be distinguished as 'foreign' in either case. The same goes for 'Anno', 'stat' (meaning either 'state' or [in Latin] 'status'), and for his even more idiosyncratic 'halk/halek' (meaning 'has/have/had sex with'), which may occur in either language.

For guidance on how to deal with language changes within the body text, see the Content tagging section of the Guidelines.

3) <particDesc> (participant description: mandatory). 'Participant' is here defined very broadly, meaning the practitioner(s), the scribe(s) (if relevant), and anyone mentioned in the transcribed portion of the entry, even if they do not, strictly speaking, participate in the consultation. It may also, as explained below, include people mentioned only in the untranscribed portion of the entry if they seem relevant.

If, as quite often happens in Napier's records, it appears that a locum or assistant was standing in for the astrologer and delivering judgments, treatments etc. without the master's supervision, the locum or assistant should be treated as practitioner and Forman or Napier should be omitted entirely from <particDesc> The @name value of <cb:practice>, however, remains forman or napier. In some cases, the question of whether the person who wrote the entry really was acting on his own initiative or merely taking dictation is a matter of editorial judgment, but there are a number of entries in which it is objectively demonstrable that Napier had left his practice in the hands of an assistant.

<particDesc> contains the mandatory <listPerson>, which consists of the following:

a) a sequence of <person> (and, if appropriate, <org> and/or <personGrp>) elements, each of which has a mandatory @xml:id. The @xml:id value for Forman is always sforman, for Napier rnapier, for Gerence James gjames and for Sir Richard Napier srnapier. Values for other identifiable (or at least recognisable) scribes or practitioners will be added as need arises. Completely unidentified scribes take the @xml:id value unknown (or unknown1, unknown2 etc. should there ever turn out to be more than one unidentified hand in a given entry). In all other cases apart from the editors, the @xml:id value for an individual person is generated, if possible, from the person's initials (in lower case), e.g. rc for Richard Carter. If only one initial is known, a one-letter value is permissible. If this leads to duplication, numbers can be appended to the letters to differentiate them, e.g. ar1, ar2.

People who are referred to in the record solely by a <roleName> such as 'Bishop of London' or 'Lady Sanquhar' (where 'Sanquhar' is a title, not a surname, as in the case of Anne Crichton, Lady Sanquhar) should be given an @xml:id value of "person1" (or "person2", "person3" etc. should more than one such person appear in a given entry).

If there is no indication whatsoever of any other participant's name and no means of inferring it from the judgment or other contextual evidence, he or she should be entered as <person xml:id="anon"> (e.g. CASE1173 where the question reads only 'At 3 post m the first feb &Tuesday; 1597', and no judgment is given). If there are two or more completely anonymous but obviously distinct persons involved, they should be designated anon1, anon2 etc.

If people who have some fairly obvious relevance to the case are specified only in the untranscribed part of the document, they should be listed in the header with the relevant <person> element taking an @evidence value of internal. People mentioned only in passing in the untranscribed portion can be ignored in the header. The question of whether or not people mentioned in the untranscribed portion are in fact relevant is a matter of editorial judgment, but suspected thieves or witches, for instance, should certainly be included and listed in <cb:consultation> as <cb:object>s (see below). Other people referred to by name or occupation in the untranscribed section should also be included (though not necessarily ascribed a role), on the grounds that this is surely concrete information provided by the querent rather than something the practitioner believed he had read in the stars. Thus, 'shee loved on that did deceive her' does not warrant the inclusion of an anonymous male participant, but 'shee loved John Smith that did deceive her' or 'shee loved a baker of Stony Stratford that did deceive her' does warrant the inclusion of John Smith or an anonymous male baker in <particDesc> (it seems reasonable to assume, when dealing with texts from this period, that same-sex romantic or sexual partners would not have been referred to as such during a consultation). There are even a few cases in which a querent or subject is mentioned only in the untranscribed section, in which case <cb:querent> and/or <cb:subject> should also take an @evidence value of internal.

There will always be at least one <person>, viz. the practitioner (who may also be the querent and may also be the subject).

<person> contains as many of the following as are applicable:

i) <persName>, which in turn contains as many as applicable of <roleName>, <forename>, <surname>, <genName>, <nameLink>, <addName>, <name>.

<roleName> covers appellations such as 'Mr', 'Mrs', 'Sir', 'Goodwife', or other formulae besides personal names, family relations (e.g. 'Smiths cosen') or job titles used to specify a person's identity. E.g.

  • <persName><roleName>Mr</roleName> <forename>John</forename> <surname>Perkins</surname></persName>
  • <persName><roleName>Lady</roleName> <surname>Throckmorton</surname></persName>

Titular role names such as 'Lord', 'Mrs', 'Alderman', 'Dr', 'Goodwife/Goody' should be placed first within <persName>, while more descriptive ones (e.g. 'Bishop of London') should be placed last. In most cases this reflects the way in which they are presented in the original.

There are cases in which it is debatable whether a given formulation counts as a <roleName> or not. Less clear-cut examples will have to be resolved by editorial consultation. Aristocratic role names can be particularly problematic in this respect: for instance, the regular client Napier refers to as 'Lady Zancher' turns out to be the historically attested Anne Crichton, nee Fermor, Lady Sanquhar, and should be given the <roleName> 'Lady Sanquhar' if none of her alternative appellations is mentioned in the transcribed part of the entry.

Role names given in Latin in the original should be translated into English in the header. This is a fairly rare occurrence usually involving 'Domina' or 'Dominus', meaning (confusingly) either 'Mrs/Mr' or 'Lady/Lord', but it is normally possible to determine either from external evidence or from elsewhere in the casebooks which translation is to be preferred.

Where variant forms of some or all of a person's name are specified, more than one <forename> and/or <surname> can be used, with whatever is considered to be the less canonical version taking the @type value alternate. E.g.

<persName><forename>Edward</forename> <surname>Mabsden</surname> <surname type="alternate">Butcher</surname></persName>

for 'Edward Mabsden alias butcher' (CASE1784).

If the entire name consists of two alternative but not mutually exclusive formulations, e.g. 'mres Elis: Tyrrle the young Lady Tyrle' (CASE30263), two <persName> elements should be given, without attributes:

<persName><roleName>Mrs</roleName> <forename>Elizabeth</forename> <surname>Tyrrell</surname></persName> <persName><genName>Young</genName> <roleName>Lady</roleName> <surname>Tyrrell</surname></persName>

In most cases, where alternative surnames are recorded in the source text, they are the maiden, married, or previous married names of female participants. Normally, one of the alternatives is referred to in the record as 'alias' or 'otherwise', with no indication of the status of either name. In the comparatively rare cases where the status of such names can be at least conjecturally determined, the variant surnames can each take the @type values maiden or married.

<surname> may also take the @type value adopted in the extremely rare event of someone being explicitly described as having adopted a different surname (as opposed to acquiring one by marriage or being referred to under a false name).

The basis on which a name has been determined where none is explicitly stated in the document may be clarified by applying @evidence values of internal, external or inferred. internal means that it has been taken from the untranscribed part of the entry in question. external means that it has been taken from a source external to the entry in question (including elsewhere in the casebooks). inferred applies to cases such as assuming that an unnamed wife has the same surname as her husband, an unnamed father has the same surname as his 5-year-old daughter, etc.

@cert values of high, medium or low may also be applied to any or all of <persName>, <forename> and <surname> to express the editor's confidence about the content of the element in question. For instance, if an entry clearly states a woman's surname and includes a mention of her husband, the husband's surname may be inferred to be the same as the wife's, but only (in the absence of any evidence that the name in question is the wife's married name) with a medium level of certainty, as it is not at all uncommon at this period for married women to be referred to by their maiden names.

There are, moreover, a few cases in which it appears that the practitioner or the querent has given a false name for one of the participants. This applies mainly to entries Napier has copied from Forman's records, in which the case details are virtually identical in all respects except the name of the querent and/or subject. There are also cases (e.g. 14425, 14473, 20540, 20541, 20615) in which the querent demonstrably gives a false name to the person he or she is asking about. In such cases, the relevant part(s) of the name should be given the @type value deckname.

In the case of Decknamen, a @resp attribute may also be applied to resolve any ambiguity as to who is responsible for the subterfuge, e.g. a @resp value of #rnapier if Napier is falsifying the name, a @resp value of #t if (as in the cases cited above) Mr Trendall is asking about a subject under a cover name, or values of # plus the @xml:id value of the person in question for self-conferred Decknamen.

There are also very occasional instances of two variant spellings of a forename or surname being explicitly presented as alternatives, as in CASE2937, for 'Richard Gore (Cuer)'. (If the name is simply spelled two different ways at different points in the entry, it should be regularised in the header, but here Forman is clearly going out of his way to point out that these two very variant spellings do indeed mean the same person.) In such cases, the second option takes the @type value variant.

Nicknames, if identifiable as such, can be dealt with by applying the @type value nickname to <forename>, <surname> or <name>.

In other cases of people being given variant designations that have nothing to do (or nothing obviously to do) with their marital status, the relevant element should also be given the @type value alternate.

If there is no evidence to the contrary, where someone is identified in the records as 'X alias Y', Y should be considered the 'alternate' name. Note that 'alias' in 16/17th century English is used much more loosely than in modern English and does not necessarily imply disguise or subterfuge, being more akin to the modern 'aka'.

<genName> contains standard formulae used to distinguish between people who otherwise have the same name, e.g.

  • <persName><roleName>Mrs</roleName> <forename>Elizabeth</forename> <surname>Shaw</surname> <genName>junior</genName></persName>
  • <persName><genName>Old</genName> <forename>Anne</forename> <surname>Emerson</surname></persName>

From currently available evidence, it seems that Napier consistently uses 'old' and 'young', in formulae such as 'Old Mr Smith' or 'Young Mrs Blundell', as <genName>s rather than simple adjectives.

<nameLink> covers connecting (usually possessive) prepositions within proper names, such as 'ap', 'van', 'de'. There are frequently inconsistencies in the source as to whether or not these should be capitalised, and as to whether or not they should be regarded as part of the surname (van Dyck, Vandyck?). There are also instances of their being mutilated by anglicisation, e.g. 'Fan Hoeck'. In the material under consideration here, however, these are fairly rare, so the precise rendition can be sorted out on a case-by-case basis.

<addName> (which is used very rarely) can be applied to soubriquets (typically nominal phrases) that defy more precise classification, e.g. 'The Grand Turk' or 'Deaf Alice' (see the entry for <addName> in the Element Set).

<name> can be used in cases where it is unclear whether the name given is a forename or surname (or, indeed, nickname or anything else).

If some or all of a person's name is not explicitly stated, or is given in code, or is drastically abbreviated, but can be deduced from external evidence, <persName>, <forename> and <surname> (but not, for some reason, <name> or <genName>) can all take an @evidence value of external and, if there is any doubt about the identification, a @cert value of high, medium or low. If all or part of the name is given only in one of the untranscribed sections of the entry in question, @evidence takes the value internal.

The proper nouns in <persName> should be given in regularised forms as established on the project's wiki page.

If any of the components of <persName> is unclear or only partially legible from the available image, whatever is legible or conjecturable should still be recorded in the header, with the same tags as are applied in the text, e.g. '<persName><roleName>Mr</roleName> <forename>John</forename> <surname>V<gap extent="1" unit="chars" reason="hand"/><unclear cert="low" reason="hand">own</unclear></surname></persName>' (CASE23404). In such a case, regularisation is obviously impossible, but only completely indecipherable components of <persName> should be omitted from the header.

ii) <sex>, which may be '<sex value="1">M</sex>', '<sex value="2">F</sex>' or '<sex value="0">U</sex>' (unknown). This can also have a @cert value of high, medium or low if sex can be inferred but with less than total confidence, and an @evidence value of conjecture, external or internal to indicate the grounds on which sex has been determined or conjectured if this is not evident from the transcribed part of the entry. <sex> should always be included, even if the @value value is 0 (unknown), as this provides a means of checking that the gender really is unknown as opposed to the transcriber's having forgotten to record it. The gender even of wholly anonymous participants can quite often be deduced from personal pronouns, Latin grammar or other internal evidence.

iii) <age>, if one is specified in the source document, with a numerical @value value (in years by default) repeated as the content, e.g. '<age value="12">12</age>'. This can also take a @precision value of high, medium or low if the age is explicitly given as approximate, e.g. 'of about 20 yeres'. However, it can be taken as read that almost all ages are guesses or approximations (if not outright lies by the querent). Where a range is given, e.g 'of between 40 and 50 yeres', 'of more then sixty', @value can be replaced by @atLeast and/or @atMost. Where the age of small children is given in days, weeks or months rather than years, in fractions of years, or in a mixture of temporal units, a @unit value can be invoked: '<age value="6" unit="months">6 months</age>', '<age value="30" unit="months">2 and a half years</age>'. In such cases, the content of <age> should be a modernised form or English translation of whatever formulation is used in the original.

In the case of ranges, the content of <age> should be the upper and lower limits of the range (if both are available), linked by a hyphen and with no spaces. E.g., taking the hypothetical example above, '<age atLeast="40" atMost="50">40-50</age>'. Where only one limit is known, the following models can be used:

  • <age atLeast="61">over 60</age>
  • <age atMost="19">under 20</age>

Or the content may use the formulae 'at least' and/or 'at most' if it seems more appropriate in natural language. This applies especially in the case of inferred ages of young children, e.g. a child is known to be either the same age as or at least nine months older than its one-month-old sibling, in which case the content may read 'at least 1 month'. (In such a case it would in principle be feasible to describe the child as either 1 month or at least 10 months old, discounting the possibility of premature birth, but it hardly seems worth it.)

@atLeast and @atMost can also be used if, for instance, the second digit of someone's age is lost or illegible. Matters become more complicated if the first digit is lost, so that '<gap unit="chars" extent="1">6' may mean 16, 26, 36, etc. up to 96 (it seems reasonable to suppose that none of the people mentioned in the casebooks lived to much more than 100, though centegenarians are not unknown). In such cases, multiple <age>s can be given, each with an @xml:id value of age1, age2 etc. and an @exclude value pointing to all the incompatible alternatives, on this model (assuming for brevity's sake that the person in question is known to be under 40):

  • <age xml:id="age1" value="16" exclude="#age2 #age3">16</age>
  • <age xml:id="age2" value="26" exclude="#age1 #age3">26</age>
  • <age xml:id="age3" value="36" exclude="#age1 #age2">36</age>

The same procedure should be adopted if two or more conflicting ages for a given person are specified in the same entry and there is no evidence as to which should be preferred or which represents the practitioner's last thought on the matter.

iv) <residence>. If anyone's address is specified (however vaguely) in the transcribed part of the entry, it should be marked up in the body text with <rs type="address" xml:id="address1"> (or @xml:id values of address1, address2, address3 etc. if more than one address is mentioned in a given case). Any terminal punctuation should be placed after the <rs> tag, though medial punctuation may be included within it. The <residence> element in <person> then takes the @sameAs value of # plus the @xml:id value of the relevant <rs>. Obviously, more than one person may live at a given address, and if there are good reasons for supposing two or more <person>s to have the same address, they can (and should) have the same <residence sameAs> value - even if this is not explicitly stated in the text of the document. E.g. if there is no evidence to the contrary, it seems reasonable to assume that children under ten probably live with their parent(s), spouses probably live together, servants probably live with their employers and vice versa. In such cases, <residence> takes an @evidence value of inferred. Where there are grounds for doubt, @cert can be invoked.

<residence> also takes, invariably, a @key value of databaseNormalizedIDKey. This is a placeholder that will be converted to something more meaningful once a proper database of all the addresses mentioned in the casebooks has been constructed.

In the very rare cases in which residence can be determined from the untranscribed part of the entry, <residence> takes an @evidence value of internal and as content a literal transcription of the address as it appears in the source (see the entry for <residence> in the Element Set for an example).

Where former places of residence are mentioned in the text, these should be marked up in the same way but with <residence> taking a @notAfter ISO value of the last plausible date at which it might have been a current residence (the day before the consultation if no other evidence is available) or a @to value of the date on which it ceased to be one if this can be ascertained.

v) <birth>. If a date (and/or time, and/or place) of birth is specified (typically, but by no means exclusively, in nativities), this should include <date>, <time> and/or <placeName>. <date> and <time> take @when (or @notBefore/@notAfter) ISO values. <placeName> takes a @sameAs value of # followed by the @xml:id of the relevant <rs type="address"> or <placeName> as marked up in the body text. Or if the place name does not occur in the transcribed part of the text, <placeName> takes a literal transcription of the relevant text as its content (see the example given under <death> in the Element Set: at the time of writing, this situation has never arisen in the context of <birth>).

Where two (or more) mutually exclusive dates or times of birth are given in the text, both or all should be recorded in the header, each with an @xml:id value of date1, date2 (etc.) or time1, time2 (etc.), and an @exclude value pointing to the incompatible alternative(s), on the same principle as incompatible <age>s.

The same applies if a single date is given in the text but there are two or more plausible interpretations of it (e.g. 'Friday 13 July' if the 13 July in question was a Thursday), and it is not possible to establish which option is to be preferred.

The same mechanism can be applied to ambiguous or mutually contradictory dates for <death> or <event>.

<date> may also take an @n value of Monday, Tuesday etc. if the day of the week is (correctly) specified in the text, but if not there seems little if any point in supplying this from external sources.

Where any of this data occurs in an untranscribed part of the document, either <birth> itself or any or all of its children should take an @evidence value of internal. Where a date or date range (typically of birth but sometimes of other things) has been worked out by deciphering one of Napier's characteristic circumlocutions such as 'Thursday a sennet before St Peters', <date> takes an @evidence value of "extrapolated".

In the not unusual event that the date of birth given in the entry is incompatible with the age stated in the entry, this can be mentioned in a comment tag, but the data should be left as the source presents them. If the discrepancy is wild enough we may see fit to mention it in the <notesStmt>, but since the value of <age> is generally assumed to be approximate anyway, this does not normally merit any public comment.

In nativities (and, mercifully, only in nativities), Napier quite often uses what looks to modern eyes like the 24-hour clock for times of birth. For instance, in MS Ashmole 224, f. 151r, he casts a nativity for his nephew's wife Lady Frances Napier, stating that she was born at '16 p m' on Tuesday 18 October 1602. 18 October 1602 was a Monday, and it is clear from other nativities for the same person that he in fact means 4 am on Tuesday 19 October, i.e. 16 hours after noon ('post meridiem') on Monday 18 October.

This is presumably because he is thinking in terms of 'sidereal' time, according to which the day begins at noon. However, he quite often manages to confuse himself and (as in the above example) present a mismatch of one day between the date and the day of the week of the recorded birth. The mismatch may occur in either direction, and he quite often 'corrects' either the day or the date by one day, either bringing them into or out of kilter.

In such cases, timeanddate.com is an invaluable resource for figuring out which day and date is actually intended. The times and dates should be given in the transcriptions as they stand in the text, but either corrected in the header on the above principles or presented as two mutually exclusive alternatives if the correct option cannot be ascertained. If this leads to either the day or date of birth given in the header conflicting with that given in the text, a <note> should be added within <notesStmt> explaining so far as possible why the mismatch has occurred. Transcribers may either add such notes themselves or enter a comment tag asking a senior editor to do so.

vi) <death>. If a date (and/or time, and/or place) of death is specified, even if it is not in the transcribed section of the document, it should be recorded using the same elements as in <birth>. If it is in an untranscribed section, <death> or any or all of its children should take an @evidence value of internal.

vii) <event>. If a date (and/or time, and/or place) is specified in the entry for significant events relevant to a participant's life history other than birth, death or anything covered by <relation> (q.v.), e.g. christening, baptism or burial, it should be encoded in an <event> element, in much the same way as <birth> and <death>, except that <event> needs a @type value explaining what sort of event it is, and must have content (contained in a nested <p>). This should consist of the bare minimum of relevant information, on this model:

'<event type="baptism"><p>Baptised on <date when="1587-01-01">1 January 1587</date> at <time when="11:00:00">11 am</time> at <placeName sameAs="#place1">St Pancras&rsquo; Church</placeName>.</p></event>'.

viii) <occupation>. Where a participant's occupation is stated in the entry, this should be recorded (in modernised form with an initial capital) as the content of <occupation>, e.g. 'Midwife', 'Baker' (see our element set our master occupations list for all supported occupations). Where an occupation is given in terms that seem potentially confusing to non-specialist readers (e.g. 'man' or 'boy' meaning male servant or apprentice), explanations may be added in brackets, e.g. 'Man (Servant)'.

If a person has more than one occupation, e.g. Humphrey Caucot, 'souldier & shoemaker' (CASE18164), two or more <occupation> elements may be used.

If a person's occupation is explicitly stated but only in the untranscribed portion of the document, <occupation> takes the @evidence value internal.

If a person's occupation is not explicitly stated but can be inferred from the content of the entry (whether the transcribed portion or not), for instance a reference to someone's 'master' or 'mistress' suggesting that the person in question is a servant, <occupation> takes the @evidence value inferred. If there is some doubt or dispute about the inference, it may also be given a @cert value (high, medium or low).

If someone is described as having formerly had a particular occupation, <occupation> takes a @notAfter ISO value of the last plausible date on which he or she might have ceased to have it (normally the day before the consultation unless any further evidence is available), or a @to value of the date on which he or she ceased to have it if such precise information is present in the record.

ix) <trait>. In the very rare cases where someone is defined in the original record by her or his place of origin, nationality or other regional affiliation (whether or not this is accompanied by any of the other available components of <person>), e.g 'Segnior frenchman' (CASE5497) or 'denshir woman' (CASE5388), this should be recorded in a <trait> element with the @type value regionalIdentity. <trait> in turn contains <desc>, which contains a succinct natural-language description of the regional identity, based on the source but with modernised spelling and if necessary English translation ('Frenchman' and 'Devonshire woman' respectively in the above examples).

b) <org>. Where any of the parties to a consultation is not an individual person but a formally constituted group of unspecified people, e.g. 'the docters' (the London College of Physicians) or 'the University of Oxford', such a group - or such groups, if there are more than one - should be noted in one or more <org> elements. Each <org> takes a mandatory 3-letter @xml:id value, and as content the element <orgName>, containing a modernised version of the original description (with an initial capital), e.g. '<org xml:id="drs"><orgName>The doctors</orgName></org>'.

The @xml:id value for 'the docters' (or words to that effect, in Forman's records normally meaning the College of Physicians of London or its representatives) is drs. @xml:id values for other such groups will be assigned by the editors as they arise. (See the 'orgs and personGrps' page on the project wiki.)

Named ships (such as 'The Richard' (CASE882) or 'The Lion's Whelp' (CASE1661) should be defined as <org>s in the header, with a @type value of ship, since they occasionally turn up as subjects or objects of a consultation, or need to feature within <listRelation> if someone is described as owner, captain, purser etc. of a specific ship (e.g CASE4588, in which John Wallis is described as shipmaster of The John Francis). For consistency's sake, all named ships should be recorded as <org>s, even if they do not otherwise feature in the metadata.

Ships' names should be recorded in the metadata in normalised, modernised forms with initial capitals, as with CASE1661, in which 'The Lion's Whelp' is actually written 'the Lyons whelp' in the source.

In other respects, <org> functions exactly like <person> except that it does not contain <sex>, and its @xml:id value can similarly be used to derive @ref values for <cb:querent> (though not in the case of ships, obviously), <cb:subject> and <cb:object>, or the @active, @passive or @mutual values of <relation>.

Where any of the participants is not an individual but a group of unnamed people not definable as an <org>, e.g. 'the servants' or 'her friends', they can be defined as a <personGrp> taking an xml:id value in the same way as an <org> and as content the elements <sex> (male, female or unknown), and if relevant (i.e. if all members of the group have the same job) <occupation>. See the entry for <personGrp> in the Element Set for examples. Like <org>, <personGrp> can be pointed to by the @ref value of <cb:querent>, <cb:subject> or <cb:object>, or by the @active, @passive or @mutual value of <relation>. (See the 'orgs and personGrps' page on the project wiki for xml:id values defined to date.)

c) <listRelation> (optional). Where relationships of any sort between persons and/or groups mentioned in <listPerson> can be identified, these are recorded in one or more <relation> elements in <listRelation>, using the @xml:id values defined in <listPerson> preceded by #, thus:

  • <relation name="master" active="#person1" passive="#person2"/> means person1 is person2's master
  • <relation name="mother" active="#person1" passive="#person2 #person3"/> means person1 is mother of both person2 and person3
  • <relation name="friend" mutual="#person1 #person2"/> means person1 and person2 are friends
  • <relation name="member" active="#person1" passive="#drs"/> means person1 is a member of the College of Physicians of London

Where a relationship is not explicitly stated in the original document but has been deduced by the editor on whatever grounds, <relation> takes a @type value of editorial, an @evidence value of external, internal, inferred or conjecture, and if necessary a @cert value of high, medium or low (not needed if there is no reasonable doubt about the deduction).

The attributes @active and @passive are purely notional and do not imply that one person is more responsible than the other(s) for the nature of the relationship: '<relation name="slave" active="#person1" passive="#person2"/>' is perfectly valid coding to indicate that person1 is person2's slave.

If two people are described as lovers/sweethearts/boy or girlfriends, they can be linked by e.g. '<relation name="romanticPartner" mutual="#person1 #person2"/>'. However, if it appears that person1 is person2's sweetheart but person2 is not, or at least not necessarily, person1's sweetheart, the @name value wouldBeSweetheart should be applied, with the unrequited lover as the @active participant, and <relation> taking a @type value of editorial, since this is a matter of editorial interpretation rather than straight representation of the source data: '<relation name="wouldBeSweetheart" active="#person2" passive="#person1" type="editorial"/>'. In ambiguous cases - for instance, if it is clear that X has an affection for Y but unclear whether the feeling is reciprocated - a <!-- REVISIT --> comment tag should be added explaining the situation, in the hope that some as yet untranscribed entry will shed light on Y's feelings, in which case it will be possible to add an @evidence value of external to the earlier entry and (if necessary) revise the @name value of <relation>.

If the dates at which relationships began and/or ended are specified in the entry, <relation> may take the attributes @from, @to, @notBefore and/or @notAfter. @from is most likely to apply to marriage where a wedding date is given, but may also be used in defining professional, romantic or any other relationships if the evidence is available. @notAfter is particularly useful for ex-relationships, e.g. 'Jeane wit that was mrs blages maid' (CASE10082), for which a @notAfter value of the day before the consultation can be given if no more precise information is available.

It can be taken as read that if the death date of one of the partners in a relationship is recorded, this constitutes the relationship's @notAfter date, so it does not need to be specified in <relation>.

If the time as well as the date of the commencement (or, theoretically, the termination) of a relationship is specified in the source (this applies almost exclusively to marriages where the date and time of the wedding are given), @from-custom and/or @to-custom should be used. For instance,

'<relation name="husband" active="#xx" passive="#yy" from-custom="1555-07-01T12:00:00"/>'

indicates that XX and YY are recorded as having married at noon on 1 July 1555.

On the mercifully rare occasions where a range of plausible dates can be postulated for the beginning (or end) of a relationship, a series of <relation> elements each with a different @from or @to value can be used, with @xml:id values of relation1, relation2 etc, and @exclude values, as with <age>.

Any number of <relation> elements may be used.

See the values of @key in our element set and relations master list, relations.xml, for relationships defined to date.

4) <textClass> (mandatory: defines the type of text in question). This contains only the empty element <catRef>, which points by means of its @target value to one of the types defined in @target, which correspond to values in our consultation type list (consultation-types). <catRef> may also take a @cert value of high, medium or low in the very rare instances in which there is some doubt about the categorisation of the text.

5) <creation> (optional: records the stages in which an entry was composed if it was demonstrably not written at one sitting).

This contains the element <listChange>, with an @ordered value of "true". This in turn contains two or more chronologically ordered <change> elements detailing the steps of the entry's composition.

Each <change> element takes an @xml:id value of "stage1", "stage2", etc., and where possible, a @date value giving the date on which the change was made. This is rarely possible for any but the first <change> element, giving the date on which the consultation was held and the entry first written. It can be taken as read that any subsequent changes are posterior to this so the relevant <change> elements do not require a @date value unless there is some indication of when exactly, or within what date range, a given change occurred. In the unusual event of a range being definable, @notBefore and/or @notAfter should be used instead of @date.

The content of <change> consists of a <name> element with a @sameAs value pointing to the @xml:id of the relevant person, followed by a natural-language account of the nature of the change. By far the commonest reason for adding a second <change> element is that the practitioner, or one of the practitioners, or someone else, has added information about the outcome of the case (typically the subject's recovery, deterioration or death, or the effects of the prescribed medicine). However, there is a significant number of entries in which the process is more complicated, involving (for instance) Napier copying one of Forman's entries into one of his own casebooks and then revising it, or Napier making corrections or additions to an entry originally written by one of his scribes or collaborators. The precise wording in such cases is a matter for editorial judgment, but for some examples see the entry for <creation> in the Element Set.

6) <settingDesc> (mandatory: details about the consultation itself).

a) <date>, which nests in <p>. @when gives the date of the consultation (if known, which it usually is) in ISO format (yyyy-mm-dd) and @n gives the day of the week in natural language. Except in <publicationStmt> and <revisionDesc>, all dates should be given according to the Julian calendar (which is how they are almost always given in the source texts).

If, as quite often happens, there is a discrepancy between the day of the week and the date as recorded in the source (e.g. a date of 'Feb 1 Wednesday' when Feb. 1 of the year in question was a Tuesday), two options are available. If there are compelling grounds for deducing which of the components is a mistake (it should be corrected as 'Feb 2 Wednesday' rather than 'Feb 1 Tuesday', or vice versa), the corrected version should be recorded in the metadata and the relevant parts of the transcribed text marked up using <sic>/<corr> as explained in the Normalisation section of the Guidelines. If both options seem plausible, both should be given, using @xml:id and @exclude values on this model:

  • <p><date when="1601-02-01" n="Sunday" xml:id="date1" exclude="#date2"/></p>
  • <p><date when="1601-02-02" n="Monday" xml:id="date2" exclude="#date1"/></p>

If both options are plausible but one is more plausible than the other, the two alternative <date>s can take @cert values of high and low respectively. In such cases, the offending part of the source should be corrected using <sic>/<corr> with a @cert value of high on <corr>. If both options seem equally plausible, no @cert values need be applied in the header, and the source text should simply be given as it stands.

b) <time>, which nests in another <p>. @when gives the time of the consultation (if known) in ISO format (hh:mm:ss).

In both cases, @notBefore and/or @notAfter can be used instead of @when to offer a time range if the exact date or time is not known, and @cert can be applied in doubtful cases. If part of the time is lost or illegible, resulting in a number of mutually exclusive alternatives, @xml:id and @exclude values (of time1, time2, etc.) should be used in the same way as for <age> and <date>.

If no date or time is given, but it can be deduced with reasonable confidence (typically on the basis of manuscript position and/or internal evidence) that a consultation took place between time A on date X and time B on date Y, @notBefore-custom and @notAfter-custom values should be used. E.g.

'<date notBefore-custom="1599-01-08T11:00:00" notAfter-custom="1599-01-09T07:20:00"/>'

means some time between 11 am on 8 January 1599 and 7.20 am on 9 January 1599. In such cases, if a range has been systematically inferred, for instance on the assumption that the entry was written after the previous one and before the next one in the manuscript (bearing in mind Napier's habit of filling in his pages in an inconsistent and often counter-intuitive order), or that an interrogation was obviously written after the event it refers to and presumably before the next entry in the manuscript, <date> takes an @evidence value of "inferred".

It is permissible for @notBefore and @notAfter-custom or @notBefore-custom and @notAfter values to co-exist within a given <date> if one end of the range can be determined with more precision than the other.

If no evidence at all is available as to the time of a consultation, <time> can be omitted from the header. <date>, however, should always be included, either as a specific date or as a range with specific lower and upper limits, even if it can be narrowed down to nothing more precise than a range of 'some point between the date when the consultant began practising and the date of the consultant's death'.

Dates and times should always be given in full (yyyy-mm-dd/hh:mm:ss) even if no precise date or time can be established. In such cases, a range should be offered, e.g. '<date notBefore="1598-01-01" notAfter="1598-12-31"/>' rather than simply '<date when="1598"/>'.

c) <cb:consultation> (mandatory), which contains as many as applicable of the following:

i) <cb:questionNumber> (optional), with a numerical @n value stating that this is explicitly recorded (whether in the transcribed or the untranscribed portion of the entry) as the querent's first, second or whatever consultation (e.g. <cb:questionNumber n="2" /> where the text contains a formula such as '2a questo' or '2a figura'). This applies even if (for instance) '2a questo' or '2a figura' is appended to what is in fact the querent's fifteenth recorded question: this formulation clearly had a special meaning for Forman and Napier, indicating a sequence of connected questions, though we have not yet categorically established the nature and purpose of these groupings.

ii) <cb:consultant> (mandatory), with a @ref value of the consultant's @xml:id value as defined in <listPerson>, preceded by #.

If necessary (i.e. if there is more than one practitioner), there may be more than one @ref value, e.g <cb:consultant ref="#sforman #rnapier" />. The same applies to <cb:querent>, <cb:subject> and <cb:object>.

It is also permissible to include more than one <cb:querent> and/or <cb:subject> if they need different @present and/or @evidence values, though if both or all have the same values it is simpler to subsume them into a single @ref as above.

iii) <cb:practice> (mandatory): the practice in which the consultation took place, with a @name value of either forman or napier. In the vast majority of cases, entries in either practitioner's casebooks refer to his own practice (even if someone else is standing in for him as practitioner), but there are a very few examples of cases in Forman's practice being recorded in Napier's casebooks or vice versa, either because one of them is standing in for or collaborating with the other, or because Napier has copied a record from Forman's practice into his own casebook.

iv) <cb:querent> (mandatory): the person(s) who asked the question. This takes a @ref value of the querent's @xml:id value as defined in <listPerson>, preceded by #. (This may be the same person as the practitioner.) Also a @present value of yes, no or unclear to say, if possible, whether the question was put in person, unless the querent is or is assumed to be the same person as the subject, in which case @present is only required on <cb:subject>.

In most cases, the querent is assumed to be the same person as the subject if there is no clear statement of her/his identity. In these cases no further attributes are needed. But where there is an explicit statement, however vague, of the querent's identity, e.g. 'her self' (querent=subject) or 'the mother for the child' (querent=mother), @evidence should be internal. If the querent's identity can deduced from some external source such as another case or Forman's guide to astrology, @evidence should have the value external. If we can infer that the querent is not the same person as the subject but we have no clear evidence about who he/she is, <cb:querent ref="#anon" evidence="inferred" /> (where the subject, obviously, is someone other than anon). Where there is significant doubt about the querent's identity, the element can take a @cert value of high, medium or low. NB this is certainty about whether the person in question really is the querent, not whether he or she was present.

The formulation 'himself/herself/the woman (etc.) present' or 'in presenc' (as Napier usually spells it) should be treated with caution. While 'she sent', 'himself came' and the like seem fairly unambiguous indications that querent=subject, a mere statement of presence may very well suggest that the subject was not present of her or his own volition. In any case, it does not constitute solid evidence that the person in question is the querent. In such cases, if querent is assumed to be subject since there is no positive evidence to the contrary, <cb:subject> should of course take a @present value of yes but <cb:querent> should not take any @evidence value.

The main exception to the default querent=subject assumption is children under ten. It is assumed that someone else is asking the question on their behalf unless they are expressly described as asking it themselves. By the same token, if a subject who is not the same person as the querent is ten or over, he/she is assumed not to be present unless otherwise stated, but under-tens seem likelier to have been brought along to their consultations and should be given a @present value of unclear if there is no explicit statement on the issue.

There are occasional cases in which it is apparent that a child of ten or more has been accompanied by an unspecified querent, as in CASE3118, for 12-year-old Margery Heath, where 'the child present' can hardly be taken as meaning that Margery put the question herself, but no other querent is recorded.

Where the subject is known to be under 10 and no querent is specified, the presumed querent should be given the @xml:id value anon, as there is a very considerable chance that he or she is not the child's birth parent, if he or she exists at all.

The other exception to this rule of thumb is where subjects are manifestly deranged or incapacitated, or the entry features such derogatory accounts of their behaviour, which are clearly not the practitioner's own comments, as to make it barely conceivable that they could themselves be the source of the information (or allegation). In such cases, the querent should be treated as anonymous, with an @evidence value of conjecture and a @cert value if appropriate.

If there is reasonable doubt as to which of the people recorded in <listPerson> is the querent, both or all the mutually exclusive candidates should be listed, each in a separate <cb:querent> element, with an @xml:id value of quer1, quer2 (etc), a @ref value pointing to the @xml:id value of the relevant person as declared in <listPerson>, and an @exclude value or values pointing to the @xml:id value(s) of the incompatible alternative(s), on this model:

  • <cb:querent xml:id="quer1" ref="#ab" exclude="#quer2"/>
  • <cb:querent xml:id="quer2" ref="#cd" exclude="#quer1"/>

These alternatives may also be weighted by adding different @cert values to the different <cb:querent> elements if both or all options seem plausible but one seems more plausible than the other(s). If, however (as is almost always the case), no option seems likelier than the other(s), there is no need for a @cert value on any of them.

v) <cb:subject> (mandatory): the person(s) about whom or in whose interests the question was asked, with the same attributes as <cb:querent>. If subject and querent are or are assumed to be the same person, only <cb:subject> needs a @present value.

Just as with <cb:querent>, if there is reasonable doubt as to which of the people recorded in <listPerson> is the subject, both or all the mutually exclusive candidates should be listed, each in a separate <cb:subject> element, with an @xml:id value of subj1, subj2 (etc), a @ref value pointing to the @xml:id value of the relevant person as declared in <listPerson>, and an @exclude value or values pointing to the @xml:id value(s) of the incompatible alternative(s), on this model:

  • <cb:subject xml:id="subj1" ref="#ab" exclude="#subj2"/>
  • <cb:subject xml:id="subj2" ref="#cd" exclude="#subj1"/>

Again as with <cb:querent>, @cert values may be applied to each <cb:subject> element to establish a hierarchy of plausibility, but no @cert value is needed if neither or none of the candidates seems significantly likelier than the other(s).

In this extremely rare situation (at the time of writing, the situation has arisen only twice in over 34,000 entries), <cb:topic> must contain <person> elements for both or all the mutually exclusive candidates, each with an @xml:id value of pers1, pers2 (etc.), an @exclude value or values pointing to the @xml:id value(s) of the incompatible alternative(s) as stated within <cb:topic>, and a @sameAs value pointing to the @xml:id value of the person in question as declared within <listPerson>.

Thus, supposing that an entry has the topic lossAndTheft and that this applies either to someone called Andrew Burton or to someone called Catherine Davis (but not to both):

<listPerson> will include

  • <person xml:id="ab"><persName><forename>Andrew</forename> <surname>Burton</surname></persName></person> and
  • <person xml:id="cd"><persName><forename>Catherine</forename> <surname>Davis</surname></persName></person>

The two possible subjects will be listed within <cb:consultation> as

  • <cb:subject xml:id="subj1" exclude="#subj2" ref="#ab"/>
  • <cb:subject xml:id="subj2" exclude="#subj1" ref="#cd"/>

and the <cb:topic> element within <cb:consultation> will appear as

  • <cb:topic key="lossAndTheft"><person xml:id="pers1" exclude="#pers2" sameAs="#ab"/><person xml:id="pers2" exclude="#pers1" sameAs="#cd"/></cb:topic>

If the subject is not, or is assumed not to be, the same person as the querent, this element can optionally take the @consent and/or @knowledge values yes or no if there is an explicit statement that the consultation occurred with or without the subject's consent and/or knowledge. Alternatively, @consent may take the value explicitlyUnclear if the practitioner actually expresses uncertainty as to whether the subject consented or not. (Consent, or the lack of it, is normally expressed in the records by the stock Latin phrases 'cum consensu' or 'sine consensu', or very occasionally some such formulation as 'credo sine consensu', which calls for an explicitlyUnclear value.) If there is no explicit statement one way or the other, on either count, these attributes should not be applied.

Napier has a bewildering habit of describing consultations as having occurred with or without the subject's consent when the subject is manifestly too young (e.g. 8 months old) to have expressed an opinion on the matter. Our current working hypothesis is that this in fact refers to the child's presence rather than her or his consent, so it can be used to infer a @present value. However, a @consent value should also be entered, in the interests of remaining faithful to the source, however implausible it may seem.

vi) <cb:messenger> (optional): if a messenger is specified, the @ref attribute points to the @xml:id value of the person in question as declared in <listPerson>.

This includes people such as servants or relatives who have brought a question. However, it is often hard to be sure whether the bringer of a question counts as querent or messenger (i.e. whether they are putting the question themselves or simply conveying it). In such cases, comment tags, editorial consultation, and as a last resort <notesStmt> are the best tools we currently have available.

vii) <cb:object> (optional): the person(s) who is/are not the principal person(s) in whose interests the question was asked but is/are highly relevant to it: e.g. if X asks whether she should marry Y, X is querent and subject, Y is object, or if A asks whether B has bewitched C, A is querent, C is subject and B is object. Or if D asks about the whereabouts or wellbeing of her absent husband E, D is both querent and subject (since it is in her own interests that she is asking) and E is the object. Again, the @ref value points to the @xml:id value of the person in question. As with querent/messenger, the borderline between subject/object is not always easy to define.

In the unlikely event of there being two or more mutually exclusive candidates for the role of <cb:object> (as distinct from there simply being two or more <cb:object>s, which is not at all uncommon), the mechanism described above under <cb:querent> and <cb:subject> should be invoked, with @xml:id values of obj1, obj2 (etc.) on the relevant <cb:object> elements.

viii) <cb:location> (optional) with @type values of neutralGround, practitionerReceivesMessage, practitionerVisitsQuerent, querentSendsSubject, querentVisitsPractitioner or unknown. practitionerVisitsQuerent and querentVisitsPractitioner are hopefully self-explanatory; the others (which are used only rarely) are explained in more detail in the entry for <cb:location> in the Element Set. Note in particular that practitionerReceivesMessage should only be used in conjunction with ref (concerning which see below), where there is an explicit statement of where the practitioner was when he received the message. A mere statement that a message was sent, with no indication of where it was sent to, does not call for the use of practitionerReceivesMessage, as this is already apparent from the no value for @present on <cb:querent>.

<cb:location> also has an optional @ref value of e.g. #place1 or #address1, pointing to the @xml:id value of a <placeName> or <rs type="address"> in the body text (cf. <residence> above) if the location of the consultation is specified in the source text.

The great majority of Forman's and Napier's consultations almost certainly took place at their respective homes, but it should not simply be assumed that this is the case if there is no statement to that effect. Even a formulation such as 'he came to me' or 'she visited me' does not necessarily mean that the encounter was in the consultant's home, and indeed there are some cases where we know that Napier was 'visited' while he was staying at his brother's house in Luton or with a friend in some other town.

ix) <cb:topic> (mandatory), with a @key value of any one of the categories defined in the topics list. There may be any number of topics bar zero. Each <cb:topic> element must contain at least one <person>, <personGrp> and/or <org> element, pointing to the person or people being asked about, thus: '<cb:topic key="XXX"><person sameAs="#yy"/></cb:topic>', '<cb:topic key="XXX"><person sameAs="#aa"/><person sameAs="#bb"/><person sameAs="#cc"/></cb:topic>'. In most cases, this will be the subject, or one or more of the subjects, but the element may also, or instead, contain one or more objects. Within topics such as lossAndTheft or witchcraft, both the victim(s) and the alleged perpetrator(s), if any are mentioned, should be included here: the question of whether they should be regarded as victim(s) or perpetrator(s) will be determined by whether they have been defined as subject(s) or object(s).

There are some cases, most notably absentPerson entries, in which the person asking is the subject but the person being asked about is the object. In these instances, only the object(s) should be included as <person>s within <cb:topic>.

To summarise:

If A is asking about the welfare or whereabouts of absent person B, only B belongs in <cb:topic>, since A is not the person being asked about, although he or she counts as the subject. If A is asking whether B has robbed or bewitched C, both B and C belong in <cb:topic>, but A does not, since A is not the robbed or bewitched party, and not the supposed robber or bewitcher. If, however, A is asking whether B has robbed or bewitched A, both A and B should be <person>s within <cb:topic>.

Where there are two or more mutually exclusive candidates for the @key value of <cb:topic>, they can be dealt with by entering two or more <cb:topic> elements with @xml:id values of topic1, topic2 etc., and @exclude values, as with <age>, <date> and <time>.

Certain topics should only be assigned to an entry if the practitioner himself has specified them in the question section using a particular constrained vocabulary. In these cases, <cb:topic> should take a @resp value pointing to the practitioner in question, to indicate that the choice of topic is based directly on the practitioner's own categorisation rather than the editor's interpretation. The @key values in question are:

  • diz (where the practitioner has used the term 'diz', 'disease', 'diseased' or cognates in a medical question)
  • morbus (where the word 'morbus', however declined, features in the question section of a medical entry)
  • morbusPassions (where the word 'morbus', however declined, features in the question section of a passions entry)
  • nonMedicalState (where the word 'stat', 'state' or 'status' features in the question section of a non-medical entry)
  • passionsDiz (where the practitioner has used the term 'diz', 'disease', 'diseased' or cognates in a passions question)
  • sickness (where the word 'sick' or 'sickness' features in the question section of a medical entry)
  • sicknessPassions (where the word 'sick' or 'sickness' features in the question section of a passions entry)
  • state (where the word 'stat', 'state' or 'status' features in the question section of a medical entry)

In the case of <cb:topic key="liveOrDieMedical"> (as opposed to plain liveOrDie, which is for questions that are not, or at least not obviously, medical in nature), an @evidence value of internal should be applied if either the fact that the question is about whether someone will live or die or the fact that the question is medical in nature is only apparent from the untranscribed section.

If the topic cannot be even conjecturally defined (because it has been lost through damage, it is unstated, it is stated so cryptically that none of the editors can make sense of it, or it has been deleted to the point of indecipherability), <cb:topic> takes a @key value of unknown and a @reason value of msDamage, notGiven, notUnderstood or deleted. If a question concerns more than one topic, it is permissible for one or more to have the @key value unknown even if the other(s) can be more precisely defined.

x) <cb:item> (optional) with a @type value of urine, letter, token or blood. Normally this will only feature if urine or blood samples, a letter, or some other unspecified token is explicitly mentioned in the record, but it may take the @present values explicitlyNo (if the consultant actually notes the absence of such an item) or unclear (if there is some reason to suppose the item was probably present but no conclusive evidence).

xi) <cb:judgment> (optional): included if a judgment section is given.

xii) <cb:treatment> (optional): included if a specific treatment is recorded, or if there is an explicit statement that no treatment was offered. Napier quite often, especially in cases of mental disorder and/or witchcraft, includes one or more sigils in his prescriptions: these are of especial interest and should be flagged by a <cb:treatment> tag with the @type value sigil. Only one such tag is needed (or permitted), regardless of how many sigils are prescribed. This may be either instead of or in addition to a <cb:treatment> element with no attributes, indicating the prescription of more conventional treatment. See the entry for <cb:treatment> in the Element Set for guidance on how to spot sigil prescriptions.

xiii) <cb:recipe> (optional): included if a specific recipe is spelled out, normally (but not always) preceded by the glyph '&Rx;'. The distinction between 'treatment' and 'recipe' is somewhat subjective and may have to be sorted out on a case-by-case basis, but as a general guide 'prepare purg and bleed' is a treatment, '&Rx; Iuniper berries steeped in dew' is a recipe. The two are not, of course, mutually exclusive.

xiv) <cb:info> (optional), with a @type value of angel, divination, event, financial or urine. This records the presence of information about any of these four apparently discrete matters.

In April 1611, Napier took to consulting the archangels Asariel, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael and Uriel, and a somewhat lower-ranking angel called Aladiah (and possibly others) for advice about diagnoses, prognoses and treatments. Quite how he communicated with them remains something of a mystery but his records of their advice are clearly of considerable interest and the presence of such records in a given entry should be documented using <cb:info type="angel"/>, with a mandatory @subtype value of Aladiah, Asariel, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel or Unspecified as the case may be.

These records tend to be extremely cryptic and can be hard to spot, but they are typically much more categorical than Napier's own determinations. Whereas Napier usually hedges his own judgments with formulae such as 'it seemeth that ...', 'videtur ...' or the like, those of the angels are presented with an air of confident finality, as statements of concrete fact: 'she will die', 'non est gravida' etc. (though in the case of favourable prognoses often with a proviso such as 'by the grace of god', 'with Gods help' etc). They are normally (but not always) prefaced by the capitalised initial of the archangel in question (A for Asariel, G for Gabriel, M for Michael, R for Raphael or V for Uriel) or a truncated form of his name (e.g. 'Gab' for Gabriel or 'Mich' for Michael). Current thinking is that Aladiah is normally given in truncated form as 'Al' (or in one instance spelled out in full as 'Alladia', which is how we identified him), but where only a letter 'A' is given it is advisable to add a comment tag of the form <!-- TODO CB ANGEL --> pointing out that it may mean Aladiah instead of Asariel.

<cb:info type="divination"/> applies where the practitioner has demonstrably used some other form of divination instead of or as well as astrology or geomancy to reach his judgment. It requires a @subtype value indicating what sort of divination was involved. To date, the only such 'alternative' method encountered in the casebooks is divination by dice, for which Napier briefly developed an enthusiasm in 1618-1619: this is recorded by the @subtype value dice. The characteristic indicators of the use of dice divination are a row of dots (presumably indicating the total number of dots on the upturned faces of the dice) and/or a rhyming couplet, most often in Latin, associated with that particular number of dots (e.g. CASE47477, in which a row of eleven dots just below the chart is followed by the formula 'Subruet in fine vim morbi vis medicinae' (the power of medicine will in the end overcome the power of the disease). The same couplets recur in different entries, always associated with the same number of dots, so it would appear that Napier was drawing on some as yet unidentified collection of possible judgments, using dice (as he states himself at one point) to determine which to select, rather after the fashion of I Ching.

<cb:info type="event"/> is used if information has been added about previous or subsequent events relevant or potentially relevant to the case: 'her former physick wrought not at all', 'he died 3 dais after' or the like. It takes the mandatory @subtype value previousConsultation or subsequentEvent. Information about previous events should be limited to remarks about previous consultations or treatments administered by the current practitioner. Details about past events in the patient's private life or treatments offered by other practitioners should be considered part of the judgment. Reports of subsequent events (which, by definition, constitute addenda to the original records) can be construed more broadly, including subsequent treatments not prescribed by the practitioner (if they are prescribed by the practitioner they count as <cb:treatment>), or reports of the subsequent effects of treatment prescribed by the practitioner, e.g. '24 stooles it gave her' (CASE10635).

<cb:info type="financial"/> applies if there is any explicit record of payment or other financial details relating to the consultation. In Napier's case, this quite often includes a statement that no charge was made, usually expressed as 'gratis' or simply 'gr'. There are also many instances in Napier's records of payments-in-kind, usually involving agricultural produce ('shee brought me apples', 'he sent me a paire of Conyes' etc.). In both cases, these should be recorded as <cb:info type="financial" /> with a comment tag briefly transcribing or summarising the information.

Distinguishing financial information can be problematic, thanks to Napier's habit of stating the weight as well as the price of medicines in pence. Generally speaking, a quantity expressed at least partly in pounds and/or shillings can be taken as <cb:info type="financial" /> but one expressed only in pence cannot, unless it is preceded by some other indication of the weight of the medicine in question (which may also be in pence). The term 'ob.', which is frequently appended to quantities given in pence, is short for 'obolus', meaning 'halfpenny', and may refer to either weight or price.

<cb:info type="urine"/> is included if there is a description of the patient's urine (as opposed to merely a record of its having been brought or sent), suggesting that urine observation is being used as a diagnostic tool. In a fairly small number of cases, it is a matter of editorial judgment whether an account of the patient's urine should be considered symptom description or analysis, but to take two relatively straightforward examples, 'his urine scalding hot' is symptom description but 'water too high coloured' is analysis.

xv) <cb:astrologer> (optional) points, by means of the @ref value, to the person responsible for the astrological analysis where this is not the same person as the consultant, or where both the consultant and someone else have provided astrological analysis. In the overwhelming majority of cases, consultant and astrologer are the same person, but in a relatively small number of entries one person (usually if not always Napier) has added or revised a judgment in a case for which he could not possibly have been the consultant. There are two main scenarios in which this can arise: a) where Napier has copied out one of Forman's entries but supplied his own judgment, and b) where a case has been conducted by one of Napier's assistants in his absence but Napier has added a judgment and/or treatment section at some later date. In the former case, Napier either adds a judgment where Forman had not included one at all, or Napier's supplied judgment is radically different from that of the original entry. In both, it is permissible to include two <cb:astrologer> elements if, for instance, Gerence James has acted as consultant in Napier's absence and provided his own astrological analysis (chart, treatment, judgment etc) but Napier has subsequently supplied similar information that either supplements or contradicts that of the original entry.

All the customised <cb:xxxx> elements listed above may take @cert and/or @evidence values if there are grounds for doubt about whether the element should be included or, in the case of <cb:topic>, what the @key value should be.

The presence of astrological and/or geomantic charts is noted in the <body> section of the document (see Content Tagging, section 4) and does not need to be recorded in the header.

Where any sort of information that would normally be noted in the metadata, such as judgment, treatment, urine note, financial information or event information, is present in the record but has been wholly deleted, it should not be recorded in the header, but can (and preferably should) be mentioned in a comment tag. Where such information is only partially deleted, however, the remaining section still needs recording.

IV. <revisionDesc>

records the work done on the electronic file, and consists of an indefinite series of <change> elements each with an ISO @when value giving the date, and content giving a natural-language account of each significant revision. The person who made it goes in a <name> element with an @xml:id value that will be assigned by the senior editors when someone starts work, but is normally based on that person's first initial plus her or his surname, e.g. mhawkins, lkassell, rralley or jyoung for Michael Hawkins, Lauren Kassell, Robert Ralley or John Young.

Proofreading a file counts as a <change> even if the proofreader has not in fact made any changes to it. The file itself may not have changed but its status has.

If the @xml:id value of any of the people working on the document has previously been declared, subsequent occurrences of her or his <name> take a @sameAs value of # followed by the relevant string.

For instance:

<revisionDesc> <change when="2009-12-12">Data entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet by <name xml:id="rralley">Robert Ralley</name> as part of the Casebooks Pilot Project.</change> <change when="2010-07-05">XML file created by <name xml:id="mhawkins">Michael Hawkins</name> from Casebooks Pilot Project data.</change> <change when="2010-07-09">Transcribed by <name xml:id="jyoung">John Young</name>.</change> <change when="2010-08-13">Checked by <name sameAs="#rralley">Robert Ralley</name>.</change> </revisionDesc>

The <TEIHeader> is followed immediately by a <facsimile> element containing one or more <graphic> element(s) which point, by means of the @url value, to the filename(s) of the image(s) on which the transcription is based. This information is entered by the technical director before transcription begins (or, in the case of legacy files based on 'home-made' images, supplied by him when canonical images become available). The editors need only concern themselves with it if an entry runs to more than one page, in which case they need to supply one or more further <graphic> element(s) as explained in the entry for <graphic> in the Element Set, or in the very unlikely event of there being a mismatch between the @url value of <graphic> and the actual URL of the relevant image. These values will already have been vetted by both the technical director and a senior editor, but editors are encouraged to double-check them (this may sound horrendously complicated but in practice any such mismatch should be glaringly obvious). If something does seem to be wrong, editors should inform the technical director and not attempt to correct it themselves.

Normalisation

In general, Casebooks transcriptions cleave very closely to the original text, without modernising or regularising spelling, grammar or punctuation. However, a relatively small number of letters and glyphs, listed below, are given in regularised form in the ‘normalised’ display. The usual mechanism is to use <orig> and <reg> tags within <choice>. Normally, the content of <orig> will appear in the diplomatic view and the content of <reg> in the normalised. However, there is the additional option of <reg type="gloss">, offering a succinct editorial explanation of any text that even specialist users may need help with, such as the use of planet symbols to mean days of the week. Text may have both a normalisation and a gloss: for instance the 'p' in '45 p 6', occurring within an English passage, would almost certainly have been written as 'post' had Forman not abbreviated it, but what it means to a modern reader is 'past'. This is encoded as '<choice><orig>p</orig><reg>post</reg><reg type="gloss">past</reg></choice>'. This section (hopefully) establishes the protocols for what to normalise and how.

1) In general, semantically insignificant distinctions between letter forms can be disregarded: thus, short and long 's', Greek and Roman 'e', medial and terminal 'f', and so forth, need not be differentiated.

However, some letter forms are of sufficient intrinsic interest to warrant distinct encoding. The letter 'thorn', used as an abbreviation of 'th' but written exactly or almost exactly like 'y', should be encoded as the entity &thorn;. This provides the option of expanding it to 'th' in the normalised view and presenting it either as 'y' or as the Unicode thorn character ('þ') in diplomatic. If a word begins 'ff' (functioning like a capital 'F', as still happens in names such as 'ffion'), this should be encoded as the entity &ff;.

2) Unless a scribal hand does distinguish between upper case I/J and/or U/V, these upper case forms should be treated as I and V but provided, if necessary, with a regularisation, thus: '<choice><orig>I</orig><reg>J</reg></choice>ones', 'his <choice><orig>V</orig><reg>U</reg></choice>nkle'. These two <choice> strings can be rendered by the entities &IConsonant; and &VVowel; respectively. Where 'I' and 'V' do equate to modern 'I' and 'V', there is obviously no need to regularise.

Lower case i/j and u/v are more complicated since all four can represent either vowels or consonants. These should, where appropriate, be regularised using the entities &jVowel; for '<choice><orig>j</orig><reg>i</reg></choice>' (i.e. 'j' being used as a vowel), and &iConsonant;, &vVowel; and &uConsonant; on the same principle.

Roman numerals, whether lower or upper case, can generally be left as they stand unless they are combined with Arabic numerals in a single number, e.g. 'the 3i March', which should be normalised to 'the 3<choice><orig>i</orig><reg>1</reg></choice> March'. However, where lower-case 'j' is used to mean '1', either as a numeral in its own right or as the last part of a longer Roman numeral, it should be normalised as '<choice><orig>j</orig><reg>i</reg></choice>' (or for brevity's sake as &jVowel;, despite its not actually being a vowel in this instance).

Initial 'UU' and 'VV' should be encoded as '<choice><orig>UU</orig><reg>W</reg></choice>' or '<choice><orig>VV</orig><reg>W</reg></choice>'.

Very few early modern hands distinguish between the 'ae' ('æ') and 'oe' ('œ') ligatures, so these should always be transcribed as &aelig; unless the scribe in question clearly does differentiate between them, in which case the 'oe' ligature should be transcribed as &oelig;.

3) Capitalisation should not be imposed on or removed from the source text. A sentence or proper noun beginning in lower case should be transcribed as such, without any regularisation being offered. Similarly, a word occurring mid-sentence with an initial capital (e.g. 'flushing heates wind Rising in the stomak') should not be given a regularised form. However, it is often very hard to say whether or not an initial letter is capitalised, or whether the author/scribe himself would have been able to say whether it was. In such cases, the choice of upper or lower case is left to the transcriber's/editor's judgment, which may be informed by the context: proper nouns, and words at the beginning of sentences, are more likely to be considered capitalised; conjunctions and prepositions not at the beginning of sentences are less likely to be considered capitalised – but it is impossible to give a hard and fast ruling on this.

4) Standard types of abbreviation and shorthand should be provided with regularisations using <orig>/<reg>: '<choice><orig>hims&flourish;</orig><reg>himself</reg></choice>'; '<choice><orig>&crossedp;</orig><reg>pre</reg></choice>pare'.

a) In general, words should only be expanded if there is some form of brevigraph, overlining or other explicit scribal indication that an abbreviation is intended (such as the use of superscript in 'Bp' for 'Bishop'). A full stop after a truncated word, however, should not be regarded as an abbreviation indicator, since the use of full stops is so inconsistent and ambivalent that it would be rash to ascribe any semantic value to them.

This applies to proper nouns just as much as to any other words. 'Willm' should be expanded as 'William' ('<choice><orig>W<hi rend="overline">illm</hi></orig><reg>William</reg></choice>'), but 'Eliz' or 'Eliz.' stays 'Eliz' or 'Eliz.'. Personal names are being expanded and regularised in the header according to fairly well-defined conventions recorded on the project's wiki so there is no need to replicate this in the body text unless there is explicit indication of abbreviation.

A very common brevigraph is the overlining of a vowel or of the letters 'm', 'n' or 'y' to indicate a following 'm' or 'n'. This can be rendered e.g. 'mel<choice><orig><hi rend="overline">a</hi></orig><reg>an</reg></choice>colyk': it is up to the transcriber to deduce whether the omitted letter is 'm' or 'n' (this is usually self-evident but occasionally ambiguous). The string '<hi rend="overline">a</hi>' can be encoded as &aover; (or &eover;, &iover; etc). (This sort of overlining is often referred to as a 'macron' but this is technically wrong: a macron is a stress mark, not a brevigraph, although it looks pretty much identical.) Note that the entity &aover; does not stand in for either 'am' or 'an' but merely provides the content for <orig>: the expansion still needs to be spelled out in <reg>.

The in-house entity set covers a large number of similar standard brevigraphs such as a q-followed-by-a-tail () to mean 'que' (&que;), a character like a 9 () meaning either 'us' at the end of a word or 'con' at the beginning of one (&uscon;). Both practitioners use a loop-like character representing 'es' at the end of an English word or (much less frequently) 'is' at the end of a Latin one, e.g. 'heat' for 'heates'. This should be transcribed 'heat<choice><orig>&loop;</orig><reg>es</reg></choice>'. This choice string can be rendered by the entity &pluralLoop; provided the loop does mean 'es' (even if it does not in fact represent a plural); if it is used to mean 'is' (or anything else) the choice string needs to be coded in full (though the character itself can still be encoded as &loop;).

Forman also uses an upstroke at the end of a word, sometimes continuing leftward over the top of at least part of the word, as a sort of all-purpose abbreviation mark: this should be transcribed as &flourish; and expanded as appropriate using <orig>/<reg>. More often than not, however, the &flourish; character appears merely to be decoration rather than an abbreviation mark: these should be recorded but cannot be explicated (since they appear not to mean anything).

There is also a brevigraph very similar to a flourish which runs backward over the top of the preceding letter and sometimes terminates in what might be construed as a superscript 'r'. It means either 're' or 'er', and should be transcribed as &loopedr;, with a normalisation (using <orig>/<reg>) of either 're' or 'er', at the editor/transcriber's discretion. However, if 're' or 'er' is abbreviated as superscript 'r' with no loop, it should be transcribed as '<choice><orig><hi rend="superscript">r</hi></orig><reg>re</reg></choice>' or '<choice><orig><hi rend="superscript">r</hi></orig><reg>er</reg></choice>'.

The precise distinctions between 'superscript r', 'looped r', 'flourish' and 'superscript r that just happens to be attached to the preceding letter because the writer couldn't be bothered to take his pen off the page' can be (and have been) debated at considerable length but are not among this project's primary concerns: the important thing is the content of <reg> (i.e. the intended reading).

It is important to bear in mind that some entities represent fully expanded code strings, such as '&que;' meaning '<choice><orig>q&tail;</orig><reg>que</reg></choice>' or '&jVowel;' meaning '<choice><orig>j</orig><reg>i</reg></choice>', while others merely represent the content of the <orig> section of <choice>, such as '&aover;' and '&crossedp;'. The full expansion of each entity is clearly spelled out in the in-house entity set.

b) There are, however, some conventional abbreviations not explicitly flagged as such that occur with such frequency (and might look so suspiciously like transcriptional or typographical errors) that they seem worth regularising. Examples are:

  • 'wth' (rather than 'wth') for 'with' ('<choice><orig>wth</orig><reg>with</reg></choice>')
  • 'wch' (rather than 'wch') for 'which'
  • 'p' for 'post' (in consultation times, e.g. '15 p 8'). This can be dealt with by the entity &past;, which generates '<choice><orig>p</orig><reg>post</reg><reg type="gloss">past</reg></choice>'.

c) The assorted ways in which 'ante meridiem' and 'post meridiem' are expressed in the records should be normalised as 'am' and 'pm' (lower case, no full stops). Most of these can be dealt with by the entities &Anflmfl;, &anflmfl;, &pmfl;, &Anmfl;, &anmfl;, &amfl;, or &antm; for Napier's habitual 'ant m'. In these cases, 'fl' stands in for a flourish, and it is assumed that there is a space before the concluding 'm'. Thus &Anflmfl; generates '<choice><orig>An&flourish; m&flourish;</orig><reg>am</reg></choice>'. Other variants, and examples where the am/pm formula includes other tagging (e.g. <lb>, <del>) or punctuation (e.g. 'ant. m'), should be encoded in full.

Where, however, 'ante meridem' and 'post meridiem' are abbreviated to 'am' and 'pm' in the original, no regularisation is needed, even if the original rendition includes spaces and/or full stops that would not normally appear in a modernised version, e.g. 'a. m.' or 'p m'.

Forman has a tendency to omit the 'meridiem' part of his ante meridiems: this is too common a habit to be regarded as a mistake so should not be tagged <sic>, but should be regularised to 'am' as normal, e.g. '<choice><orig>An&flourish;</orig><reg>am</reg></choice>.

Forman uses 'in m', 'in mer' etc. (meaning 'in meridie', i.e. 'at midday') to mean 'between 11.00 and 13.00' (and occasionally applies it to times even less close to noon than that). This should be given both a normalisation and a gloss: '<choice><orig>in m&flourish;</orig><reg>in meridie</reg><reg type="gloss">around noon</reg></choice>'. The commonest forms of this can be rendered by the entities &inm;, &inflmfl; and &inmfl; on the same principle as am and pm above; any other variants should be hand-crafted.

Napier and Gerence James, however, with a very few exceptions, use 'in m' or 'in mer' more conventionally to mean 'at noon' precisely: in these cases the content of the gloss should be 'at noon' rather than 'around noon'. However, on the occasions when they do obviously use it Forman-fashion, it should of course be coded as above.

d) Abbreviations that are still standard (aside from the question of superscripting) can be left as they stand, e.g. 'Mr', 'Mrs', 'Dr', which can be coded as 'M<hi rend="superscript">r</hi>', 'M<hi rend="superscript">rs</hi>' and 'D<hi rend="superscript">r</hi>' respectively. 'Mr' and 'Mrs' would have been understood at the time as 'Master' and 'Mistress' rather than 'Mister' and 'Missus' but expanding them as such would probably only sow confusion. However, if they really do mean 'master' or 'mistress' in modern terms – e.g. 'the Mrs for the maid' – they should be given normalisations. '&c' (for etcetera) can be left as it stands, coded '&amp;c' (and does not need to be flagged as <foreign> if it occurs in a passage in English).

Napier generally abbreviates 'mistress' as 'Mres', embellished with whatever combination of superscripts and overlinings has taken his fancy at the time. If functioning as role names, these should all be regularised as 'Mrs', e.g. '<choice><orig>M<hi rend="superscript">res</hi></orig><reg>Mrs</reg></choice>', '<choice><orig>M<hi rend="overline">res</hi></orig><reg>Mrs</reg></choice>'.

e) Astrological and alchemical symbols should be transcribed using the entities provided in the in-house entity set (&SagittariusSymbol; (), &TaurusSymbol; (), &VenusSymbol; (), &SunSymbol; () etc.) and glossed using <orig>/<reg>. This enables us to differentiate between the use of planetary symbols to mean gods/days/metals/planets, e.g. '<choice><orig>&VenusSymbol;</orig><reg type="gloss">Venus</reg></choice>', '<choice><orig>&VenusSymbol;</orig><reg type="gloss">Friday</reg></choice>'. By far the commonest occurence of these in the question sections is the use of planet symbols for days of the week. These can be dealt with by the entities &Monday;, &Tuesday; etc., generating e.g. '<choice><orig>&MoonSymbol;</orig><reg type="gloss">Monday</reg></choice>'.

Napier goes through phases of writing days in Latin even in otherwise entirely English passages, e.g. 'die ' for 'Friday' or 'die ' for 'Monday'. These should be given both a Latin regularisation and an English gloss: '<choice><orig>die &VenusSymbol;</orig><reg>die Veneris</reg><reg type="gloss">Friday</reg></choice>'. Provided he has spelled the word 'die' out in full (as he usually does), this choice string can be represented by the entity &FridayN; (or &SaturdayN;, &SundayN; etc.). However, if the 'die' part of the day name is given as 'd', 'd.' or anything else, the full choice string requires handcrafting.

Conversely, Napier sometimes omits the word 'die' and simply refers to a day by its planet symbol even when he is writing Latin. Here the missing 'die' needs to be supplied in the regularisation (since by no stretch of the imagination can the word 'Venus' on its own be construed as meaning 'Friday' in Latin). In these cases, which will only occur in documents or parts of documents flagged as being in Latin, the symbols should be expanded as e.g. '<choice><orig>&VenusSymbol;</orig><reg>die Veneris</reg><reg type="gloss">Friday</reg></choice>'. These choice strings can be represented by the entities &FridayLatin;, &SaturdayLatin; (etc.).

f) The coding, representation and explication of the seemingly idiosyncratic cipher Forman sometimes uses, chiefly to disguise personal names in cases in which he has some personal involvement, remains to be established.

g) Fractions are almost invariably spelled out in full in the casebooks, e.g. 'halfe', '3 quarters'. In the extremely rare event of a vulgar fraction being used in the original text (at the time of writing this has arisen precisely once in over 40,000 files), it should be encoded on this model: '<formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mfrac><mn>1</mn><mn>2</mn></mfrac></math></formula>' (1 over 2) (CASE34854).

5) In other respects, the spelling of the original should generally be preserved, without any orthographic gloss or normalisation, e.g. 'melancoly', 'bene' (for 'been'), 'tymorous'. However, glosses may be introduced, using <orig>/<reg> tags, at the transcriber's/editor's discretion, if the original spelling seems likely to cause serious problems for non-specialist users. For instance, if 'wickes' were judged to be too obscure a spelling of 'weeks' for popular consumption, it could be tagged as '<choice><orig>wickes</orig><reg type="gloss">weeks</reg></choice>'. Note, however, that a number of such potentially confusing spellings (including 'wickes') are mentioned on the Glossary page of the project's website and do not call for regularisation or glossing in the transcriptions.

6) The distinction between 'normalisation' and 'correction' is a very fine one, but if the transcriber/editor deems some part of the text to be an error on the author/scribe's part, the original text and the editorial amendment should be encoded, respectively, in <sic>/<corr> tags within <choice>. For instance, '<choice><sic>squncy</sic><corr>squincy</corr></choice>' (CASE10117). Note that, as in this example, the content of <corr> should be what (the transcriber thinks) the original author would have corrected his mistake to if he had noticed it, even if that still looks 'wrong' to a modern reader (in this case, a modernised version would read 'squinsy', meaning suppurative tonsillitis). The <corr> element has @cert and @resp values with which the encoder can (and should, if there is any doubt) record who proposed the correction and how sure he/she is about it, on a scale of high (pretty confident)/medium (in two or three minds)/low (educated guess).

As in the above example, the <sic> and <corr> elements should contain whole words (or whole numerals), even if only one character requires correction. This makes for a cleaner online display and sidesteps the problem of what to do, for instance, about Napier's habit of writing 'mayed' when he means 'maryed', where what needs to be corrected is the omission of a character.

In the event of the author/scribe inadvertently duplicating text, or including completely irrelevant text, the <corr> part of the <choice> element takes the @type value noText and has no content, e.g. 'Isabel ... Carter of <choice><sic>of</sic><corr type="noText"/></choice> 36 yeres' (CASE1115). Where it appears that the author/scribe intended to delete text but failed to do so, an empty <corr> element with the @type value delText can be used similarly. The borderline between noText and delText is often open to dispute and may call for discussion on a case-by-case basis.

<sic>/<corr> combinations should also be used where the day, date or (less often) time given in the text is manifestly wrong, e.g. if an entry for Wednesday 6 Sept is followed by one for Thursday 6 Sept or an entry for 3 Jan 1597 is followed by one for 3 Jan 1596. It is usually clear from the context which part of the entry is erroneous but not always (e.g. in the first example above, is the 'correct' version Wednesday 6 or Thursday 7?). The transcriber/editor should use her/his judgment in such cases, noting any doubts in comment tags. The metadata should give the corrected day/date/time, with appropriate @cert values in debatable cases. See the Header section of the Guidelines, subsection III. 6) a), for instructions about what to do when both options seem plausible.

Where the content of <corr> is a symbol or abbreviation that would otherwise be supplied with an expansion using <orig>/<reg>, it should not be expanded within <corr>. Instead, the entire <choice> string should nest within the <orig> element of a further <choice> string, with the regularisation of the corrected version appearing as the content of <reg>. By far the commonest example of this in Napier's casebooks is his peculiar habit of writing 'h' where he manifestly intends a Saturn symbol meaning 'Saturday', which is rendered as '<choice><orig><choice><sic>h</sic><corr>&SaturnSymbol;</corr></choice></orig><reg type="gloss">Saturday</reg></choice>'.

Where the converse is the case, e.g. if Napier (as he sometimes does) uses a Saturn symbol where he manifestly intends an 'h', no regularisation of the erroneous symbol or abbreviation is needed: '<choice><sic>&SaturnSymbol;</sic><corr>h</corr></choice>'. If both the content of <sic> and that of <corr> are symbols or abbreviations, e.g. he writes a Mercury symbol meaning Wednesday when he should have written a Mars symbol meaning Tuesday, the procedure is essentially the same as in the h-for-Saturn-symbol case, with no regularisation of the erroneous form required: '<choice><orig><choice><sic>&MercurySymbol;</sic><corr>&MarsSymbol;</corr></choice></orig><reg type="gloss">Tuesday</reg></choice>'.

7) Punctuation (or the lack of it) should be recorded as it stands, without any sort of regularisation. The virgule, or slightly-wobbly-forward-slash character, which is clearly a punctuation mark of some sort but cannot be confidently equated with any modern punctuation mark, should be recorded as the entity &slash;. As with any other punctuation mark, it should follow the preceding text immediately, with no space in between (except in cases where a space clearly is intended, which it quite often is).

8) For the purposes of project documentation, we will normalise or regularise rather than normalizing or regularizing.

Format tagging

1) The consultation records and their component parts do not normally feature headings, but any that occur should be tagged <head>, with a @rend value of center if they are centred. <head> is only permitted as the first thing in a <div> or <lg>.

2) Paragraphs in prose should be tagged <p>. There is normally no need to record variations in the formatting of paragraphs (e.g. indentation of first line, right-alignment, centring), though a @rend value is available, as explained under <p> in the Element Set, in case the need for it should arise.

3) The beginning of any new line of prose should be marked <lb>. This includes the first line of a paragraph or heading: although <lb> is formally defined as 'line break' it is more helpful to think of it as 'line beginning'. Where a line break occurs between words there should be a space after the first word but not before the second. Where it occurs mid-word or at the beginning of a paragraph or heading there should be no space either side of it.

Line breaks that appear to be there for a reason but do not represent the beginning of a new paragraph (e.g. to split up a heading) should be tagged <lb type="intentional"/>. These are the only ones that will normally be rendered in the display, which is why the spacing around <lb> is so important.

If a word is hyphenated at a line break, <lb> takes the @type value hyphenated and the hyphen itself should not be otherwise indicated unless it is 'hard' and would have appeared anyway, e.g. 'star-<lb/>chart', in which case the <lb> does not require any attributes.

4) Any text string in verse (even if it is only one line long or less) should be tagged <lg> (line group) and each individual line (or incomplete line) within it tagged <l>.

5) Whitespace, i.e. space left blank between lines or within a line of text, should be encoded as <space>. The @dim (dimension) value (horizontal or vertical) states exactly what it says it does; the @extent value is a numerical character indicating the extent of the space, and the @unit value states what sort of units it is being measured in (normally chars, i.e. characters, for horizontal whitespace or lines for vertical whitespace). It is clearly impossible to be mathematically precise about the @extent value: a reasonable approximation of how many characters or lines would have fitted into the space is sufficient.

6) Text that has been distinctively rendered in some way, e.g. underlined, italicised, superscripted etc., should be tagged <hi> with a @rend value of e.g. underline, doubleUnderline, overline, italic, bold, superscript, subscript, large, small. We will not, however, attempt to record all the changes in size of Forman's erratic handwriting, or the fact that he normally puts part at least of the subject's name in much larger letters than the rest of the text. If such fluctuations do seem to be relevant to the interpretation of the text (e.g. deducing who is the subject in ambiguous cases), this can be mentioned in a comment tag.

<hi> can also be used to indicate a change of writing medium, e.g. a @rend value of redInk to indicate that a word or phrase is written in red ink, or redUnderline to indicate that a text string not written in red has been underlined in red. (If underlining occurs within <hi rend="redInk">, the underlining is presumed also to be in red if there is no indication to the contrary.)

7) The vast majority of both Forman's and Napier' casebooks are laid out in a format of two columns per page, referred to for Casebooks purposes as column A (the left column) and column B (the right column). Where a page or part of a page is in a three-column or four-column format, a column C and if necessary a column D may be added. If the question section of any consultation, or any other material we transcribe, crosses column or page breaks, these should be marked by <cb> or <pb> respectively, with @xml:id and @n values indicating the designation of the new column/page. The @xml:id value of <cb> should be colA, colB, colC or colD. The @n value is simply a, b, c or d. The @xml:id value of <pb> is the page or folio number preceded immediately by 'p' if the document is numbered by page or 'f' if it is numbered by folio, e.g. p76, f147r. The @n value is the same number without the preceding 'p' or 'f': 76, 147r. Since the header will contain a detailed description of the layout of the material, there is no need for the @xml:id and @n values to be more precise or expressive than this, even in the case of complex counter-intuitive shifts.

If the <cb> or <pb> tag occurs in mid-paragraph, one space should be left on either side of it unless it occurs in mid-word, in which case there should be no space on either side. If a word split by a page or column break is hyphenated, both tags can take the @type value hyphenated, as with <lb>. In the vast majority of cases, however, these tags occur between paragraphs or at the end of the transcribed section of the entry, and the spacing around them is irrelevant.

<cb> and <pb> should nest in <div> if they occur part way through the transcribed text, but be placed outside <div> if they do not. If there is a chart (which is considered a <div> in its own right) and a column or page break between two transcribed sections of an entry, each section should be encoded as a separate <div>, with the <cb> or <pb> element appearing as either the last thing in the first <div> or the first thing in the second <div>, depending on which column or page the chart appears on.

Where a page, or part of a page, has been divided horizontally rather than vertically, so that text proceeds in linear fashion from column A to column B at several points within the file, no <cb> tags are needed: the fact that the entry occupies more than one zone is adequately expressed by the content of <bibl type="positionOnPage">.

If, as is normally the case in the medical records proper rather than the more discursive guides to astrology or other texts, the entry occupies only (part of) one column or one uncolumnated page, no <cb> or <pb> tags are needed: <bibl type="positionOnPage"> gives users as much information as they need.

If one of the columns is itself subdivided into smaller columns, this can be mentioned in a comment tag but the 'mini' column break does not need to be recorded in the coding.

In the extremely rare event of text moving on to the same page or column more than once within a given file, e.g. an entry begins in column A, continues in column B, reverts to column A and then moves back into column B a second time, the two @xml:id values should be distinguished by appending a hyphen and a numeral to the normal value, e.g. colA-1, colA-2, or f46r-1, f46r-2, but the two @n values will be identical. The same applies, with regard to <cb>, in the even rarer event of an entry covering more than one page and having a column break on each.

8) Added text is tagged <add>, with a @place value of supralinear (above the line), infralinear (below the line), inline (neither higher nor lower than the surrounding text but obviously added later), interlinear (added text that itself runs to more than one line), over (physically overwriting an earlier text string), marginRight (in the right margin), marginLeft (in the left margin), pageTop (at the top of the page) or pageBottom (at the bottom of the page).

<add> may nest in <add>, in which case the @place value of the nested <add> refers to where it appears relative to the inserted text it nests in. For instance, an infralinear insertion into a supralinear insertion may still be above the line of the main text into which the supralinear insertion is inserted, but nonetheless takes the @place value infralinear.

9) Deleted text is tagged <del>, normally with one of the following @type values: blockStrikethrough for whole sections struck through en bloc, strikethrough for a text string crossed out by a continuous horizontal line, cancelled for any heavier deletion, erased for text that has been rubbed or scraped away from the original document, or over for cases where one text string overwrites another, functioning simultaneously as deletion and replacement. Text tagged <del type="over"> will always, by definition, be followed immediately by text tagged <add place="over">.

However, where the deletion appears to function as a deliberate suppression of information rather than simply as (part of) a revision or correction, the deleted text should be tagged <del type="redactedCancelled"> or <del type="redactedBlockStrikethrough">. (The latter is, for obvious reasons, very rare, but occasionally there is a clear intent to suppress the whole entry, which has been achieved by heavily deleting the salient points and then striking through the entire passage en bloc.)

Where added text replaces deleted text, the two strings should nest in a <subst> element and the deleted text should be transcribed first. This applies even in cases where the caret mark or other insertion indicator appears, physically, before the <del>. If the added text has the @place value over and/or it replaces a text string that is only part of a word, number or other textual unit, it should follow the deleted text with no space between the two elements. Otherwise, one space should be left between the <del> and <add> elements.

Except in the case of overwriting, it is not always obvious whether an addition does replace a deletion, as opposed to just happening to occur at the same point. <subst> should only be used if the transcriber/editor is reasonably confident that it really does represent a substitution.

If <add> and <del> are co-extensive - i.e. the added text has been deleted in its entirety but the surrounding text is undeleted - <del> should nest directly within <add> rather than vice versa. However, <add> may nest within <del> if the insertion represents part of a longer text string that was subsequently deleted in its entirety.

If the content of <del> is a symbol or abbreviation that would otherwise be supplied with an expansion using <orig>/<reg>, or a mistake that would otherwise be supplied with a correction using <sic>/<corr>, the deleted should not be expanded or corrected: e.g. '<del type="strikethrough">M<hi rend="overline">res</hi></del>'.

<del> may also nest within <del> if it appears that some part of a text string had been deleted before the longer text string was.

10) The hand or hands in which the document is written are recorded in the <handNotes> section of the <teiHeader>. If more than one hand features, there are two ways of distinguishing them in the body text:

a) If the main text has been written in one hand and subsequently altered by another hand, the identity of the second hand can be noted by the @hand attribute applied to the tags that record its interventions. For instance, supposing A (the principal scribe) wrote 'the cat sat on the mat' and B changed it to 'the dog sat on the mat', and they are given the @xml:id values scribeA and scribeB respectively in <listPerson>, this would be tagged 'the <subst><del type="strikethrough" hand="#scribeB">cat</del> <add place="supralinear" hand="#scribeB">dog</add></subst> sat on the mat' (i.e. the deletion - though not the deleted word itself - and the addition are both in hand B).

b) If the main text simply changes from one hand to another at some point, this can be marked with the empty element <handShift>, placed immediately before the first character in the new hand, with the @new value linking to the code for the new hand, e.g. 'the cat <handShift new="#scribeB"/>sat on the mat' indicates that A wrote the text up to 'the cat' and then B took over.

Where more than one hand features in the transcribed portion of an entry, a <handShift> tag linking to the @xml:id value of the person in whose hand the entry begins should be placed at the very beginning of the transcription, immediately after the <lb> at the beginning of the first paragraph, and immediately before the first character of transcribed text. This is not necessary if only one hand features (as is normally the case).

If the chart is in a different hand from the preceding text, a <handShift> element with the relevant @new value should appear as the last thing in the last paragraph of transcribed text preceding the chart.

11) Marginal and other notes are tagged <note> and transcribed at the point in the text to which they refer. If a note indicator (such as an obelus, asterisk or superscript character) is present, this should be recorded as the @n value of <note>, using an entity if necessary. If there is any doubt about which point in the text a note refers to - and/or whether a given portion of text counts as a note or not - this should be mentioned in a comment tag. The physical location of the note can be recorded in the @place value of <note> as infralinear, inline, interlinear, lineBeginning, lineEnd, marginLeft, marginRight, pageTop, pageBottom (cf. <add>), or chart (for notes added inside an astrological chart, as often happens in Napier's manuscripts). marginLeft and marginRight should be seen as relative to the point they relate to: for instance, notes that actually occur in the middle of the page as a whole should be considered marginRight if they pertain to a point in the left column or marginLeft if they pertain to a point in the right column.

12) Where all or part of an entry is explicitly presented as a list, the relevant portion should be wrapped in a <list> element, with each individual item on the list tagged <item>. <list> may nest in <p> if the list in question forms only part of a paragraph, but if not it can stand alone as a sibling of <p>. <list> may, optionally, contain <head> as its first component if the list has a heading.

This element is used only rarely in Casebooks transcriptions, typically for lists of suspects where these are presented as part of the question, or for entries that are presented as a sequence of numbered questions. See <list> in the Element Set for examples.

Unclear, illegible, or omitted text

1) Uncertain or conjectural readings should be tagged <unclear>, with a @cert value indicating the degree of certainty about the reading on a scale of high (pretty confident), medium (doubtful) or low (an educated guess). The reason why the text is unclear is expressed by the @reason value, which may be any of the following:

  • binding: text has been rendered unclear by over-zealous binding
  • bleedthrough: text has been rendered unclear by ink bleeding through from the other side of the folio
  • blot
  • blotDel: something that could be either an accidental blot or a deliberate deletion
  • copy: poor quality of the copy being used. By the end of the project these should, ideally, all have been checked against the original, but this is a useful way of keeping track of what needs special attention
  • damage: the MS is damaged in some way. Where there is significant damage to a given manuscript or page, the exact nature of the damage can be described in the <notesStmt> section of the <teiHeader>
  • del: deleted
  • faded
  • foxed
  • over: text is hard to read because it overwrites other text: NB not because it has itself been overwritten, which counts as del
  • hand: lousy handwriting. This is the default option if none of the others applies.

<unclear> may contain any quantity of text, from a single letter within a word to a number of whole words (unless it violates element boundaries, which is extremely rare: if it does, it will have to be presented as two or more consecutive <unclear>s).

2) Any text string that is missing entirely from the surviving manuscript (normally through damage), or is wholly illegible for whatever reason, and cannot be even conjecturally supplied, should be tagged <gap>, with @reason values as for <unclear>, a numerical @extent value, and a @unit value of chars, words or lines (always plural, even if the @extent value is 1). The @extent value does not need to be too precise: it is obviously impossible to tell exactly how much text has disappeared under a large blot, but useful to give a general idea of the scale of the omission. Alternatively, if a reasonably accurate guess is impossible (e.g. the bottom half of a page has been torn off so the loss could be anywhere between zero and three hundred words), @extent takes the value unclear and no @unit value is needed.

If it is unclear whether text is missing or not (typically in cases of MS damage or binding), <gap> can also take an optional @cert value of high, medium or low.

3) Material that is missing or illegible but can be supplied, if only conjecturally, should be tagged <supplied>, with @reason and @cert values as for <unclear>, except that if there is no reasonable doubt as to the content, no @cert value is needed. If the only apparent reason for an omission is authorial or scribal absent-mindedness, it can be rectified using <sic>/<corr>: '<choice><sic>40 9</sic><corr>40 &past; 9</corr></choice>' (CASE2847).

Content tagging

The transcription itself is housed in the <text> element of each file, which follows <facsimile>. <text> in turn contains <body>, which for our purposes nests directly inside it. (<text> can in principle contain other things too but these are not normally relevant to Casebooks transcriptions.) <body> contains one or more <div>s (divisions, i.e. self-contained sub-sections).

Unless the original document contains no text at all, and never did, or the language cannot be ascertained (because the original text has been wholly lost or what remains of it consists only of proper nouns, symbols or formulae such as '15 p 4' which could equally well be regarded as being in English or in Latin), <text> takes an @xml:lang value of en, la, el, fr or he (English, Latin, Greek, French or Hebrew) stating the principal language of the document, irrespective of whether or not other languages feature in it too. If the original language cannot be ascertained, the @xml:lang value should be und (undetermined). If there was never any text there in the first place (this is extremely rare), no @xml:lang value is required. In other cases, the principal language will usually if not always be English or Latin.

In some cases, the text is split more or less 50/50 between English and Latin. Here it does not really matter which is regarded as the principal language provided any text strings in the other are marked up as <foreign> (see section 4 below).

Overwhelmingly the greatest part of the contextual information (names, dates, places, roles, nature of queries) is dealt with in the header. However, there are certain features of the body text that require specific encoding.

1) Addresses. Where an address is specified, however vaguely, for any of the people listed in <listPerson> in the header, the relevant text string should be marked up in the body text as <rs type="address" xml:id="address1"> (or <rs type="address" xml:id="address2">, <rs type="address" xml:id="address3"> etc. if more than one address is specified): this is pointed to by the @sameAs value of <residence> in the header.

Sometimes an address is split into two or more component parts with intervening text entirely extraneous to the address, e.g. 'my Cosen Stocker intreated me to goe to Mr Cutlers house to see him being extreme sicke & I came thither in london march 29' (MS Ashmole 334, f. 6r), where 'Mr Cutlers house ... in london' constitutes an address in its own right but the intervening text forms no part of it. This can be dealt with by using the @xml:id, @next and @prev (previous) attributes of <rs>, on this model:

'my Cosen Stocker intreated me to goe to <rs type="address" xml:id="address1" next="#address2">Mr Cutlers house</rs> to see him being extreme sicke &amp; I came thither <rs type="address" xml:id="address2" prev="#address1">in london</rs> march 29'

In such cases, the <residence> element in the header points to the first of the available @xml:ids (in this case address1).

Where a previous address is mentioned in the entry, <residence> takes a @notAfter ISO value of the last plausible date at which it might have been a current residence (the day before the consultation if no other evidence is available) or a @to value of the date on which it ceased to be one if this can be ascertained.

2) Other place names. Where other geographical locations are specified, however vaguely and in whatever context, they should be marked up as <placeName>. This can be anything from a room to a continent, and includes prospective addresses. In the comparatively rare instances where such place names need to be linked to from the header (for instance because they record places of birth, marriage or death), <placeName> takes an @xml:id value of place1 (or place2, place3 etc. if more than one occurs in a given file). If they are simply places mentioned in passing, e.g. 'An Knight of half a yere suckled in <placeName>Gothurst</placeName>' (CASE10196), no attribute is required.

3) Languages. Any part of the document not in the main language should be tagged <foreign> (this can include English if the main language is not English), with an @xml:lang value of en, la, el, fr or he (English, Latin, Greek, French or Hebrew). In Forman's case at least, 'Latin' can be construed as including 'dog Latin'. <foreign> may nest in <foreign> if, for instance, there are a couple of letters in Greek within a Latin interpolation into an entry otherwise in English.

4) Charts. Where astrological and/or geomantic charts are present, these should be noted as &astroChart; and/or &geoChart;, each of which constitutes a <div> in its own right. Deleted charts should be recorded as &astroChartDeleted; or &geoChartDeleted;. If the charts are incomplete, or, in the case of geomantic charts, represent the preliminary working for the finished chart (whether or not a finished chart is also present), they should be recorded as &astroChartPartial;, &astroChartPartialDeleted;, &geoChartPreliminary; or &geoChartPartial;. Where the outline of a chart has been drawn up but no data at all entered, it should be recorded as &astroChartBlank; or &geoChartBlank;. Where a chart-size space has been left on the page without so much as a preliminary grid or outline, it should be recorded as &astroChartSpace;.

In the fairly rare case of charts occuring within (rather than after) the question section of an entry, the transcription needs to be divided into two or more <div>s with the chart(s) appearing in between them.

5) Milestones and anchors. These are normally used only in fully-transcribed entries, which are in most cases in the remit of the senior editors. However, there are some cases in which either there is nothing except a question recorded but it incorporates other elements (typically financial information), or such other elements are ineluctably bound up with the question section and cannot be sampled out. In such cases, the various sections of the entry should be transcribed but demarcated by the <milestone> and <anchor> elements as explained in the relevant sections of the Element set.

Translation

Any text in a language other than English (for Casebooks purposes, this almost invariably means Latin) should be supplied with a modernised English translation using the following mechanisms:

1) a) If the source text is wholly or primarily in Latin, each <div> (there is normally only one) should be given an @xml:lang value of la, a @decls value of #original_source and an @xml:id value following the pattern foreign001 (for the first chunk of text to be translated), with any subsequent chunks (should there be any) having the value foreign002 (for the second chunk of text to be translated), foreign003 (for the third), etc. It should then be followed by a new <div> containing the translation, with an @xml:lang value of en, a @decls attribute taking value of #translation and an @xml:id value following the pattern translation001, translation002, translation003, etc. These two elements should then be followed by a <link> element with a @type value of is-translation-of and two @target values that point to the @xml:id values of the elements containing the translated text and the original version, e.g. #translation001 #foreign001.

<div xml:id="foreign001" xml:lang="la" decls="#original_source"> <p><lb/>Sara Waille eodem tem<choice><orig>&crossedp;</orig><reg>por</reg></choice>e <foreign xml:lang="en">24 yers</foreign> <lb/>&vVowel;trum sit gra&uConsonant;ida&slash;</p> </div> <div xml:id="translation001" xml:lang="en" decls="#translation"> <p>Sara Waille at the same time 24 years whether she is pregnant</p> </div> <link type="is-translation-of" target="#translation001 #foreign001"/> (CASE1)

Even if there is only one chunk of text to be translated, the relevant elements should still take the @xml:id values foreign001 and translation001.

Note that a separate <link> is needed for each discrete chunk of text that is being translated. So, if a document contains one <div> in Latin followed by another <div> in English and then another Latin <div>, the Latin <div> and its translation will have @xml:id values of foreign001 and translation001 and the translation will be followed by a <link> element connecting them. The second Latin <div> and its translation will have @xml:id values of foreign002 and translation002 (respectively) and be followed by another <link> connecting that pair together.

b) If the source text is primarily in Latin but with one or more English interpolations, these interpolations should be retained in the translation but given in modernised form. For instance: 'Sara Waille eodem tempore <foreign xml:lang="en">24 yers</foreign> <lb/>utrum sit gravida' could be rendered as 'Sara Waille at the same time 24 years whether she is pregnant' (as in the example above).

2) Foreign language interpolations into primarily English texts will already be wrapped in a <foreign> element with an @xml:lang value. To this should be added an @xml:id attribute with a suitable value (e.g. foreign001, foreign002, etc), and a @decls value of #original_source. A translation of this text fragment should then follow in a <seg> element with an @xml:lang value of en, a @decls value of #translation and a suitable @xml:id value (e.g.translation001, translation002, etc). These two elements should then be followed by a <link> element with a @type value of e.g. is-translation-of and two @target values of #translation001 #foreign001 linking the translation and the original Latin text together. The procedure is basically identical to the one already described, but using different elements. As before, each separate chunk of non-English text and its translation will have their own <link> joining them together.

Hence, texts wholly or primarily in Latin will have an @xml:lang value of la on the <text> element, but those primarily in English but with Latin (or other) interpolations will have no @xml:lang value on <text>, only on the relevant <foreign> or <seg> elements.

Where a text consists of one (or more) <div>s in different sole or principal languages, <text> does not take a @lang value but each of its <div>s does.

3) In both cases, the @xml:id values of the elements containing the original and the translation, whether they are two <div>s or a <foreign> and a <seg>, should be sequentially numbered. The first elements containing the Latin text and the translation will have @xml:id values of foreign001 and translation001. However, if a primarily Latin document runs to more than one <div> or there is more than one foreign language interpolation into a primarily English document, the new values for the @xml:id attribute should be assigned following the same pattern, so foreign002 for a second non-English segment and translation002 for its translation; foreign003 for a third non-English segment and translation003 for its translation, and so forth.

4) The elements to which the @decls values point will be added automatically before translation begins.

5) Translations should be so far as possible into modern, grammatically coherent English, however wayward or archaic the grammar and vocabulary of the original text is. The aim is to convey the intended sense, without regard to pecularities of grammar, punctuation or capitalisation. However, the use of anachronistic vocabulary should be avoided: for instance, 'morbus virginis' should be translated as 'green sickness' rather than 'chlorosis' and 'morbus Gallicus' as 'the French disease' rather than 'venereal disease' or 'syphilis'.

6) There is no need to attempt to render the layout of the original in the translation beyond paragraph breaks, to translate deleted text or to distinguish translation of added or corrected text. The aim of the translation should be to convey the sense of the 'normalised' version of the source.

7) For documents that do not contain any English, a new <language> element with an @ident value of en will need to be added to the <langUsage> section of the header in order for the file to validate.

8) Once the foreign language content of any file has been translated, the translator should add a new <change> element to <revisionDesc> reading e.g. 'Latin translated by <name xml:id="jbloggs">Joe Bloggs</name> [or <name sameAs="#jbloggs">Joe Bloggs</name>].' and recording the date as the @when value of <change>.

Element set

The following list includes all the elements that are valid according to the Casebooks schema, including a number that are not currently used (but may be one day) or that are used only in web page or project documentation files, or in the transcription of ancillary materials. The status of all such elements is clearly stated in the relevant Note section.

Elements
<ab>
<ab> (anonymous block) contains any arbitrary component-level unit of text, acting as an anonymous container for phrase or inter level elements analogous to, but without the semantic baggage of, a paragraph.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.declaring (@decls) att.fragmentable (@part) att.written (@hand)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<abbr>
<abbr> (abbreviation) contains an abbreviation, and nests together with <expan> (containing the expanded version) in a <choice> element.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is not used in transcriptions of Casebooks entries, only in those of the more discursive guides to astrology or similar texts.

<abbr> always precedes <expan> within <choice>.

Example
<p>… here the number endeth on Agnes, <choice><abbr>therf.</abbr><expan>therfore</expan></choice> Agnes shall die first</p>
<abstract>
<abstract> contains a summary or formal abstract prefixed to an existing source document by the encoder.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is intended only for cases where no abstract is available in the original source. Any abstract already present in the source document should be encoded as a <div> within the <front>, as it should for a born-digital document.

Example
<profileDesc><abstract resp="#LB"><p>Good database design involves the acquisition and deployment of skills which have a wider relevance to the educational process. From a set of more or less instinctive rules of thumb a formal discipline or "methodology" of database design has evolved. Applying that methodology can be of great benefit to a very wide range of academic subjects: it requires fundamental skills of abstraction and generalisation and it provides a simple mechanism whereby complex ideas and information structures can be represented and manipulated, even without the use of a computer. </p></abstract></profileDesc>
<add>
<add> (addition) indicates added text, with @place recording its position relative to the text to which it has been added.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.transcriptional (@status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (@evidence)) (att.written (@hand)) att.typed (@type) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
@placegives the position of the inserted text. Permitted values: "supralinear" (above the line), "infralinear" (below the line), "inline" (neither higher nor lower than the surrounding text but obviously added later), "lineBeginning" (at the beginning of the line), "lineEnd" (at the end of the line), "marginLeft" (in the left margin), "marginRight" (in the right margin), "over" (physically overwriting an earlier text string), "pageTop (at the top of the page), and "pageBottom" (at the bottom of the page).
Status Required
Legal values are:
  • inline
  • supralinear
  • infralinear
  • interlinear
  • over
  • marginRight
  • marginLeft
  • lineBeginning
  • lineEnd
  • pageBottom
  • pageTop
Note

<add> may nest in <add>, in which case the @place value of the nested <add> refers to where it appears relative to the inserted text it nests in. For instance, a supralinear addition contained within an addition that was added infralinearly to the main text should have a @place value of "supralinear", even if the second insertion itself remains infralinear relative to the main text.

"lineBeginning" "lineEnd", "marginLeft" and "marginRight" should be taken as relative to the position of the entry as a whole. The ‘right margin’ or ‘line end’ of an entry in the left-hand column and the ‘left margin’ or ‘line beginning’ of an entry in the right-hand column are all in the middle of the page as a whole.

The distinctions between "lineBeginning" and "marginLeft", or between "lineEnd" and "marginRight" are somewhat nebulous and really not of any great significance, but generally speaking a word or two tacked on at the beginning or end of a line should be treated as "lineBeginning" or "lineEnd", while a more substantial added text string which itself runs to more than one line, or one placed at a significant distance from the beginning or end of the line, should be treated as "marginLeft" or "marginRight".

Example
<p>… h. 10. <add place="supralinear">30</add> ant m …</p>
<addName>
<addName> (additional name) is used for soubriquets or alternative forms of names that do not obviously fit into any other category.
Attributesatt.casebooks.minimal.certainty (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.typed (@type)
Note

This element is used only rarely in Casebooks transcriptions but is useful for anomalous situations of this sort where none of the other children of <persName> seems up to the job.

Example
<persName evidence="external"><roleName>Sultan</roleName> <forename>Mehmed</forename> <genName>III</genName> <addName>The Grand Turk</addName></persName>
In this example (CASE5121), the person in question is in fact referred to in the original document only as ‘the Turk’, but external evidence shows him to be Sultan Mehmed III, popularly known (at least in England) as ‘The Grand Turk’.
Example
<persName> <forename>Alice</forename> <addName>Deaf Alice</addName> </persName>
In this example (CASE14948), the person in question (a suspected witch) is referred to in the source document merely as ‘Deaf Alice’. It seems reasonable to suppose that ‘Alice’ is indeed her forename, but ‘Deaf’, on its own, can hardly be considered any definable part of her name, so ‘Alice’ is encoded as her forename and ‘Deaf Alice’ as her soubriquet.
<addSpan>
<addSpan> (added span of text) marks the beginning of a longer sequence of text added by an author, scribe, annotator or corrector (see also <add>).
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.transcriptional (@status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (@evidence)) (att.written (@hand)) att.typed (@type) att.spanning (@spanTo) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
@placePlacement
Derived fromatt.placement
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Suggested values include:
  • inline
  • supralinear
  • infralinear
  • interlinear
  • over
  • marginRight
  • marginLeft
  • lineBeginning
  • lineEnd
  • pageBottom
  • pageTop
Note

This element is not used in the transcription of Casebooks entries. However, it may prove useful for the more discursive astrology guides and similar texts.

<affiliation>
<affiliation> contains an informal description of a person's present or past affiliation with some organization, for example an employer or sponsor.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • sponsor
  • recommend
  • discredit
  • pledged
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<age>
<age> records a participant’s age as stated in the entry.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.dimensions (unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • western
  • sui
  • subjective
  • objective
  • inWorld
  • chronological
  • biological
  • psychological
  • functional
@unitgives the unit in which the age is being measured. Permitted values: "days", "weeks", "months", "years".
Status Optional
Datatype
Legal values are:
  • days
  • weeks
  • months
  • years
@valuemay be any numerical value, expressed as an integer in Arabic numerals.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.count
Note

The default value for @unit is "years" so this does not need to be entered by the encoder if an age is given in years (as it usually is except in the case of very young children).

<age> should only be applied if one is specified in the source text, not calculated on the basis of a date of birth or baptism, etc. Where both a date of birth and an age are specified but are incompatible, the values should be given as they appear in the source. (This arises most often in connection with the early modern habit of using ‘27’ (say) to mean ‘in his/her 27th year’, i.e. 26 in modern terms.) If the discrepancy is great enough, this may, at the editor’s discretion, be commented on in <notesStmt> but the @value value should still be that stated in the source, however implausible it may be.

If two (or more) different ages are given for the same person in the same entry, the @xml:id and @exclude mechanism should be used, as explained in the TEIHeader section of the Guidelines, section III. 3 a) iii).

Example
<age value="12">12</age>
Example
<age value="3" unit="months">quarter of a year</age>
Example
<age value="30" unit="months">2 and a half years</age>
<altIdentifier>
<altIdentifier> (alternative identifier) denotes the number assigned by the project to the volume in which the entry occurs, as distinct from that volume’s more canonical (but less logical) Ashmole MS number.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins and is expressed as an entity in <fileDesc>, e.g &Forman004; for Forman volume 4.

Example
<altIdentifier type="fn_number"><idno n="Forman004">Forman, vol 4</idno></altIdentifier>
<anchor>
<anchor> (anchor point) marks the end of a section in entries that have either been transcribed in their entirety or in which sections extraneous to the question are inextricably bound up with it. It takes one of the @xml:id values "angelInfoEnd", "divinationInfoEnd", "financialInfoEnd", "judgmentEnd", "previousConsultationEventInfoEnd", "questionEnd", "recipeEnd", "subsequentEventInfoEnd", "treatmentEnd" or "urineInfoEnd", which are linked to from the corresponding <milestone> (q.v.) marking the beginning of the section in question.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
Note

In the event of there being more than one ancillary section of the same type in a given entry, numbers may be appended to the @xml:id values, e.g "judgmentEnd1", "judgmentEnd2", etc.

<app>
<app> (apparatus entry) contains one entry in a critical apparatus, with an optional lemma and usually one or more readings or notes on the relevant passage.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
@typeclassifies the variation contained in this element according to some convenient typology.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
@fromidentifies the beginning of the lemma in the base text.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Note

This attribute should be used when either the double-end point method of apparatus markup, or the location-referenced method with a URL rather than canonical reference, are used.

@toidentifies the endpoint of the lemma in the base text.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Note

This attribute is only used when the double-end point method of apparatus markup is used, when the encoded apparatus is not embedded in-line in the base-text.

@loc(location) indicates the location of the variation, when the location-referenced method of apparatus markup is used.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Note

This attribute is used only when the location-referenced encoding method is used. It supplies a string containing a canonical reference for the passage to which the variation applies.

Note

This element is not used in transcriptions of Casebooks entries, only in those of the more discursive guides to astrology or similar texts.

<argument>
<argument> contains a formal list or prose description of the topics addressed by a subdivision of a text.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<author>
<author> defines the author(s) of a document.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Note

This element is not used in transcriptions of Casebooks entries, only in those of ancillary texts such as the astrology guides.

<bibl>
<bibl> (bibliographic citation) is used only (for Casebooks purposes) to define the physical location of an entry. The @type value "positionOnPage" gives the zone in which an entry begins or the zone(s) it occupies, as explained in the Guidelines, section I. 4.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarableatt.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • positionOnPage
Note

Only the zone the entry begins in need be specified if it proceeds logically from that zone into another (e.g. from uL to mL or from uR directly into bR) and does not cross any column or page breaks.

If an entry occupies more than one page and more than one column on one or more of those pages, each new column needs its own full reference, as in the last example above.

Example
<bibl type="positionOnPage">uL</bibl>
(meaning either that the entry occupies the upper left hand zone of the page or that it begins in that zone and proceeds into the bottom left hand zone).
Example
<bibl type="positionOnPage">mR-2</bibl>
(meaning that this is the second entry in the middle right hand zone).
Example
<bibl type="positionOnPage">bR, bL</bibl>
(meaning that the entry begins in the bottom right hand zone and continues in the bottom left hand zone).
Example
<bibl type="positionOnPage">f. 136v/mR, f. 137r/uL</bibl>
(meaning that the entry begins in the middle right hand zone of f. 136v and continues in the upper left hand zone of f. 137r).
Example
<bibl type="positionOnPage">f. 50r/bL, f. 50r/uR, f. 51v/uL</bibl>.
(meaning that the entry begins in the bottom left zone of f. 50r, continues in the upper right zone of the same page, and then moves to the upper left zone of f. 51v).
<birth>
<birth> (birth) encodes information drawn from the entry in question about a person’s birth, such as its date, time and/or place.
Attributesatt.editLike (@evidence) att.global (xml:lang, @style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • caesarean
  • vaginal
  • exNihilo
  • incorporated
  • founded
  • established
Note

Where the date of birth is stated in plain terms in an untranscribed part of the entry, <date> takes the @evidence value "internal".

Especially in Napier‘s records, dates of birth are quite often given in highly elliptical terms such as ‘24 y the last satterday in Lent’, meaning that the person in question was born on the last Saturday in Lent 24 years before the year of the consultation. The (rather complex) procedure for interpreting this sort of formulation is explained on the ‘Extrapolating dates’ page of the project wiki. If this mechanism is invoked, <date> should take the @evidence value "extrapolated".

Napier is also given to recording times of birth as, for instance, ‘13 p m’ or ‘19. 30 p m’, by which he evidently means 1 am and 7:30 am respectively (that is, 13 or 19:30 after noon). However, he is completely inconsistent as to whether the accompanying date is that on which the birth actually occurred or that of the day from the noon of which he is reckoning the time (i.e. the day before the birth). See the Header section of the Guidelines, subsection III. 3) a) v) for guidance on how to interpret and encode dates of this sort.

Example
<birth><date when="1583-10-27" n="Sunday"/><time when="18:00:00"/></birth>
Example
<birth><date when="1604-04-17" n="Tuesday"/><time notBefore="18:00:00"/><placeName sameAs="#address1"/></birth>
<body>
<body> (text body) for Casebooks purposes, nests directly within <text> and contains the transcribed text.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls)
Note

This element (but not, obviously, its content) is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<body><l>Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard</l><l>metudæs maecti end his modgidanc</l><l>uerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaes</l><l>eci dryctin or astelidæ</l><l>he aerist scop aelda barnum</l><l>heben til hrofe haleg scepen.</l><l>tha middungeard moncynnæs uard</l><l>eci dryctin æfter tiadæ</l><l>firum foldu frea allmectig</l><trailer>primo cantauit Cædmon istud carmen.</trailer></body>
<byline>
<byline> contains the primary statement of responsibility given for a work on its title page or at the head or end of the work.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is not used in Casebooks transcriptions. It does occur in some of the files used to generate the website pages but editors need not concern themselves with it.

<catDesc>
<catDesc> (category description) describes some category within a taxonomy or text typology, either in the form of a brief prose description or in terms of the situational parameters used by the TEI formal <textDesc>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Example
<catDesc>Prose reportage</catDesc>
Example
<catDesc><textDesc n="novel"><channel mode="w">print; part issues</channel><constitution type="single"/><derivation type="original"/><domain type="art"/><factuality type="fiction"/><interaction type="none"/><preparedness type="prepared"/><purpose type="entertain" degree="high"/><purpose type="inform" degree="medium"/></textDesc></catDesc>
<category>
<category> contains an individual descriptive category, possibly nested within a superordinate category, within a user-defined taxonomy.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Example
<category xml:id="b1"><catDesc>Prose reportage</catDesc></category>
Example
<category xml:id="b2"><catDesc>Prose </catDesc><category xml:id="b11"><catDesc>journalism</catDesc></category><category xml:id="b12"><catDesc>fiction</catDesc></category></category>
Example
<category xml:id="LIT"><catDesc xml:lang="pl">literatura piękna</catDesc><catDesc xml:lang="en">fiction</catDesc><category xml:id="LPROSE"><catDesc xml:lang="pl">proza</catDesc><catDesc xml:lang="en">prose</catDesc></category><category xml:id="LPOETRY"><catDesc xml:lang="pl">poezja</catDesc><catDesc xml:lang="en">poetry</catDesc></category><category xml:id="LDRAMA"><catDesc xml:lang="pl">dramat</catDesc><catDesc xml:lang="en">drama</catDesc></category></category>
<catRef>
<catRef> (category reference) points, by means of its @target value, at the category of text in question.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
@targetdefines the type of document being encoded using one of the categories explained in Types of text.
Derived fromatt.pointing
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • #AshmoleSlip
  • #decumbiture
  • #diary
  • #diaryDreams
  • #diaryReligiousExperience
  • #election
  • #entry
  • #entryFragment
  • #example
  • #exampleDecumbiture
  • #exampleElection
  • #exampleHorary
  • #exampleInterrogation
  • #exampleNativity
  • #geomantic
  • #horary
  • #horaryGeomantic
  • #interrogation
  • #interrogationAstronomical
  • #interrogationBurial
  • #interrogationCastingFigure
  • #interrogationConversation
  • #interrogationDeath
  • #interrogationGivingBirth
  • #interrogationItemLoss
  • #interrogationLabour
  • #interrogationMarriage
  • #interrogationMedicalEpisode
  • #interrogationMissedQuestion
  • #interrogationQuestion
  • #interrogationQuickening
  • #interrogationReceivingMessage
  • #interrogationSendingMessage
  • #interrogationStartingJourney
  • #interrogationStartingWork
  • #interrogationTreatment
  • #interrogationVisit
  • #letter
  • #nativity
  • #nonCasebooksEntry
  • #note
  • #noteAlchemical
  • #noteAngelic
  • #noteAstrologicalWorking
  • #noteBooks
  • #noteDiary
  • #noteFinancial
  • #noteIndex
  • #noteInscription
  • #noteLifeEvents
  • #noteListPatients
  • #noteListPeople
  • #noteMemorandum
  • #notePatientUpdate
  • #notePractitioner
  • #notePrayer
  • #notePrescription
  • #noteQuery
  • #noteReport
  • #noteTreatment
  • #noteVerse
  • #noteWeather
  • #practice
  • #prescription
  • #revolutions
  • #treatise
@schemeidentifies the classification scheme within which the set of categories concerned is defined, for example by a <taxonomy> element, or by some other resource.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Note

The vast majority of Casebooks entries are horary in nature so this is the default value applied to @target at the time of the file’s creation. Transcribers need only concern themselves with it if this needs to be changed to one of the other values.

Only one <catRef> element is permitted within <textClass> at the time of transcription (further parent categories may be added during the build process but transcribers need not concern themselves with these).

<catRef> may also take an optional @cert value of "high", "medium" or "low" in the very rare instances in which there is some doubt about the categorisation.

Example
<catRef target="#horary"/>
<cb>
<cb> (column beginning) marks the beginning of a new column in an entry that occupies more than one column. If (as is normally the case) there are only two columns on the page, it takes the @xml:id value "colA" or "colB" and the @n value "a" or "b". If there are three columns on the page (or part of it), it takes the @xml:id value "colA", "colB" or "colC" and the @n value "a", "b" or "c".
Attributesatt.typed (@type) att.edition (@edRef) att.spanning (@spanTo) att.breaking (@break) att.global (xml:id, n, @style, @rendition, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@xml:id(identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype string
@n(number) gives a number (or other label) for an element, which is not necessarily unique within the document.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype string
Note

As in the examples given here, if a column or page break occurs outside the transcribed portion of the text, <cb> should be placed outside <div>. If, however, the column or page break occurs within the transcribed portion, it should nest in <div>.

Especially in the case of Napier’s records, it is by no means unusual for an entry to cross a column break in counter-intuitive fashion, e.g. from the right hand column (column B or C) into the left hand column or centre column (column A or B).

Where a page, or part of it, has been divided horizontally rather than vertically, so that an entry proceeds seamlessly, and at several points, from uL to uR or from bL to bR, <cb> is not needed.

In the extremely rare event of text moving on to the column more than once within a given file, e.g. an entry begins in column A, continues in column B, reverts to column A and then moves back into column B a second time, the two @xml:id values should be distinguished by appending a hyphen and a numeral to the normal value, e.g. colA-1, colA-2, but the two @n values will be identical. The same applies in the even rarer event of an entry covering more than one page and having a column break on each.

Example
<div><p>… William Garton of 31 yers 1597 the 15 Ian&rsquo; Saturday An&flourish; m&flourish; 30 p 9 Diz</p> </div> <div> <cb xml:id="colB" n="b"/> <p><lb/>William Garton &slash; in bishops <lb/>gat strete&slash;</p> </div>
In this example (CASE1076), the entry is interrupted at the top of column B by one for Mrs Dixon, though the two parts of William Garton’s clearly form a single entry.
Example
<div> <p><lb/>Isbell Androwes of 45 <lb/>of Potters Perry march <lb/>19 die Mercurii h. 1. 20. p m <lb/>1600</p> </div> &astroChart; <cb xml:id="colB" n="b"/>
In this example (CASE10186), there is a treatment note and event information in column B but as neither of these has been transcribed the <cb> is placed outside the <div> (and consequently does not appear in the online display, to avoid making it look to the uninitiated as though something is missing from the transcription).
<cb:astrologer/>
<cb:astrologer/> (astrologer) points, by means of the @ref attribute, to the @xml:id value of the person conducting the astrological portions of the case.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.participants (@reason, @present, @ref) (att.casebooks.participants.certainty (@evidence) (att.casebooks.minimal.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) )
Note

<cb:astrologer> should only be used where the astrologer, or one of the astrologers, is someone other than the consultant. In the overwhelming majority of cases, astrologer and consultant are the same person, but in a relatively small number of entries one person (usually if not always Napier) has added or revised a judgment in a case for which he could not possibly have been the consultant. There are two main scenarios in which this can arise: a) where Napier has copied out one of Forman's entries but supplied his own judgment, and b) where a case has been conducted by one of Napier's assistants in his absence but Napier has added a judgment and/or treatment section at some later date. In the former case, Napier either adds a judgment where Forman had not included one at all, or Napier's supplied judgment is radically different from that of the original entry. In both, it is permissible to include two <cb:astrologer> elements if, for instance, Gerence James has acted as consultant in Napier's absence and provided his own astrological analysis (chart, treatment, judgment etc) but Napier has subsequently supplied similar information that either supplements or contradicts that of the original entry.

<cb:consultant/>
<cb:consultant/> (consultant) points, by means of the @ref attribute, to the @xml:id value of the person conducting the consultation.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.participants (@reason, @present, @ref) (att.casebooks.participants.certainty (@evidence) (att.casebooks.minimal.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) )
<cb:consultation>
<cb:consultation> (consultation) contains information about the consultation and the roles of the participants.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Note

This element is automatically generated before transcription begins.

Example
<cb:consultation> <cb:consultant ref="#sforman"/> <cb:astrologer ref="#rnapier"/> <cb:practice name="forman"/> <cb:querent ref="#cp" cert="low"/> <cb:subject ref="#cp" present="yes"/> <cb:topic key="unspecifiedMedical"><person sameAs="#cp"/></cb:topic> <cb:judgment/> <cb:treatment/> </cb:consultation>
<cb:info/>
<cb:info/> (additional information) records the presence of information about events relevant to the case, financial transactions associated with it, the condition of the patient’s urine, or Napier’s reliance on divination or angelic advice in formulating a diagnosis or prognosis.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
@typestates what the information is about (or, in the case of angels, its source). Permitted values: "angel", "divination" "event", "financial" or "urine".
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • angel
  • blessing
  • divination
  • event
  • financial
  • urine
@subtypeapplies only where the @type value is "divination", "event", "blessing" or "angel". For divination, it records how the divination was cast, namely "dice" (this being the only method encountered to date). For events, it records whether the event falls into the "previousConsultation" or "subsequentEvent" category, or takes the value "unclear" if it is not apparent whether the event in question is prior or subsequent to the consultation. For angels, it records the angel’s name if known (currently permitted values are "Aladiah", "Asariel", "Gabriel", "Michael", "Raphael", "Uriel", or "Unspecified" if no name is given).
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • dice
  • previousConsultation
  • subsequentEvent
  • unclear
  • Aladiah
  • Asariel
  • Gabriel
  • Michael
  • Raphael
  • Uriel
  • Unspecified
Note

As explained in more detail in the Guidelines, the names of angels are normally given in the record in truncated form, for instance ‘’ for Raphael or ‘Mich.’ for Michael.

Divination by dice is typically indicated by a row of dots somewhere in the judgment and/or an associated prophetic formula, usually a rhyming couplet and usually in Latin: see the Guidelines for an example.

<cb:info type="event" /> should be used for events prior to the consultation only if these concern previous consultations conducted by the same practitioner (‘she was here last weddensday’ or the like), or the effects of treatments given at previous consultations. Reports of other past events such as the patient’s father’s having died last week, the patient’s having been jilted by her or his sweetheart, the patient’s having been treated by another practitioner, or details about previous addresses, occupations, etc., should be considered part of the judgment.

<cb:info type="event" subtype="subsequentEvent" /> applies more generally to any subsequent event relevant to the case (typically the patient’s recovery, deterioration or death, or the outcome of a pregnancy), or to prior events that the practitioner only found out about later (for instance ‘shee proved with child’, which suggests that the patient already was pregnant at the time of the consultation but the practitioner was unaware of it). As a rule of thumb, if it seems reasonably clear that a comment was added some time after the writing of the original record (sometimes months or even years later), it counts as a subsequentEvent. For obvious reasons, after-the-fact reports of this sort normally appear at the foot of the entry, inside the chart, or as marginal or interlinear additions.

<cb:info type="financial" /> includes payments in kind (e.g. ‘he sent me a haunch of venyson’) or the practitioner’s decision not to charge for his services (typically expressed by the comment ‘gratis’).

<cb:info type="urine" /> records the presence of information suggesting that the practitioner has used analysis or observation of the subject’s urine as a diagnostic tool. This is distinct (though not always unequivocally so) from comments about the patient’s urine that appear to represent symptom description rather than diagnostic judgment. It is also distinct from (though not incompatible with) mere statements that urine was brought or sent, which should be recorded in <cb:item>.

<cb:item/>
<cb:item/> (item) records the presence of explicit information about items brought or sent to the consultation. Note that this does not include inferences, such as taking the presence of a urine description as an indication that urine was brought or sent, or a statement that a question was ‘sent’ as an indication that a letter was involved. It is only used to record the presence of explicit statements such as ‘he sent a letter’ or ‘shee brought her vrine’.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
@present
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • explicitlyNo
@typedefines the type of item in question. Permitted values: "blood", "letter", "token" (some token of trust brought or sent by the querent), "urine".
Status Required
Legal values are:
  • blood
  • letter
  • token
  • urine
<cb:judgment/>
<cb:judgment/> (judgment) records the presence of a judgment in the record.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
<cb:location/>
<cb:location/> (location) records, where possible, where the practitioner was at the time of the consultation, either in absolute terms or relative to the querent.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.canonical (ref, @key)
@typetakes one of the values "neutralGround", "practitionerReceivesMessage", practitionerVisitsQuerent", "querentSendsSubject", "querentVisitsPractitioner" or "unknown". By far the commonest @type values are practitionerVisitsQuerent and querentVisitsPractitioner, which are hopefully self-explanatory, except that "practitionerVisitsQuerent" also covers instances where the practitioner visits a subject who is not, or not necessarily, the same person or in the same place as the querent. "neutralGround" indicates that the encounter took place somewhere that was neither the querent’s nor the practitioner’s current place of residence. "practitionerReceivesMessage", which should only be used in conjunction with @ref, caters for the extremely rare instances in which there is concrete evidence of where the practitioner was when he received a message, such as CASE12933, in which Napier notes that the bringer of the message ‘met me then at Staunton’. "querentSendsSubject", which has been used a grand total of two times at the time of writing, applies to entries such as CASE49604 in which it is apparent that not only the question but the subject her or himself has been sent to the practitioner by the querent (probably for residential treatment, though this is unlikely to be made explicit). "unknown", which like "practitionerReceivesMessage" should be used only in conjunction with @ref, applies in the equally rare instances in which the place of the consultation is known, but it is not clear whether this was either the practitioner’s or the querent’s current place of residence at the time (for instance an inn that, so far as the record reveals, may have been either where the querent was staying, where the practitioner was staying, or a place where neither of them was staying but where they agreed, or happened, to meet).
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • neutralGround
  • practitionerReceivesMessage
  • practitionerVisitsQuerent
  • querentSendsSubject
  • querentVisitsPractitioner
  • unknown
@ref(reference) points to the <rs> or <placeName> recording the location of the consultation, in the rare cases in which a location is specified.
Derived fromatt.canonical
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
<cb:messenger/>
<cb:messenger/> (messenger) points, where relevant, to the person acting as messenger from querent to practitioner, using the @ref value.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.participants (@reason, @present, @ref) (att.casebooks.participants.certainty (@evidence) (att.casebooks.minimal.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) )
<cb:object/>
<cb:object/> (object) points to any person(s) who is/are not among the principal participant(s) but is/are highly relevant to the case, e.g. prospective spouses or suspected thieves or witches.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.participants.certainty (@evidence) (att.casebooks.minimal.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.casebooks.linking (@exclude, @xml:id)
@ref(reference) provides an explicit means of locating a full definition for the entity being named by means of one or more URIs.
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  separated by whitespace
Note

Do not use @xml:id or @exclude as they are not yet supported.

<cb:practice/>
<cb:practice/> (practice) records whose practice it is, by means of the @name attribute.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
@namerecords the practice name. Permitted values: "forman" and "napier".
Status Required
Legal values are:
  • forman
  • napier
Note

In the vast majority of cases, entries in Forman’s casebooks relate to Forman’s practice and entries in Napier’s casebooks relate to Napier’s practice, even if the consultant is someone else (for instance Gerence James acting as Napier’s locum). However, there are a very few examples of records in Forman’s casebooks referring to Napier’s practice or vice versa. This element is generated automatically at the time of the file’s creation and except in these very few cases does not need to be modified by the editors.

<cb:querent/>
<cb:querent/> (querent) points to the person(s) asking the question by means of the @ref attribute.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.linking (@exclude, @xml:id) att.casebooks.participants (@reason, @present, @ref) att.casebooks.minimal.responsibility (@cert, @resp)
@evidenceexplains the grounds for inferring or conjecturing the person in question is the querent. Permitted values: "internal" (there is an explicit statement, however vague, that this person is the querent), "external" (the fact that this person is the querent can deduced from some external source such as another case), "inferred" (we infer, on some systematic principle (usually the fact that the subject is under ten), that the querent is not the same person as the subject but we have no clear evidence about who he/she is) and "conjecture" (the editor has grounds for supposing that the querent is not the same person as the subject, for instance the subject appears to be insane, or the general layout and tenor of the entry suggests that the querent is in fact the practitioner, but no concrete evidence or systematic inference is possible).
Derived fromatt.casebooks.participants.certainty
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • internal
  • external
  • inferred
  • conjecture
Note

See the Guidelines for advice about what to do in the fairly rare event of there being two or more mutually exclusive candidates for the role of querent.

<cb:questionNumber/>
<cb:questionNumber/> (question number) records, using the @n value, that a question is explicitly noted (either in the transcribed or the untranscribed part of the entry) as being the querent’s first, second, third etc. question.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
AttributesAttributes
@nany integer, expressed as an Arabic numeral.
Status Required
Datatype int
Note

<cb:questionNumber> does not mean that this is in fact the querent’s first, second, third etc. question, merely that it is recorded as such in the source.

<cb:recipe/>
<cb:recipe/> (recipe) records the presence of a medical recipe in the entry.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
<cb:subject/>
<cb:subject/> (subject) points, by means of the @ref attribute, to the participant about whom or in whose interests the question is being asked.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.participants (@reason, @present, @ref) (att.casebooks.participants.certainty (@evidence) (att.casebooks.minimal.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) ) att.casebooks.linking (@exclude, @xml:id)
@consentindicates that there is an explicit statement that the consultation took place either with or without the subject’s (or subjects’) consent. Permitted values: yes, no and explicitlyUnclear.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • yes
  • no
  • explicitlyUnclear
@knowledgeindicates that there is an explicit statement that the consultation took place either with or without the subject’s (or subjects’) knowledge. Permitted values: yes, no.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • yes
  • no
Note

In a very few cases, the practitioner expresses some uncertainty as to whether the subject has given her/his consent or not, typically with a formula such as ‘credo sine consensu’. Here @consent takes the value explicitlyUnclear.

See the Guidelines for advice about what to do in the extremely rare event of there being two or more mutually exclusive candidates for the role of subject.

<cb:topic>
<cb:topic> (topic) defines the nature of the question being asked, using any of the terms recorded in the topics list. Each <cb:topic> element must contain at least one <person>, <personGrp> and/or <org> element, pointing to the person or people being asked about, whether subject or object. If the nature of the query is not explicitly stated in the transcribed part of the document, an @evidence value should also be applied, as explained in more detail in the guidelines. If there are grounds for doubt about the nature of the question, a @cert value may also be applied. A single entry may feature any number of topics bar zero.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
@xml:id(identifier)
Status Optional
Datatype ID
@excludepoints to elements that are in exclusive alternation with the current element.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of anyURI separated by whitespace
@reasonis used exclusively in cases where the @key value is "unknown", whether because the relevant information has been lost through illegible deletion or manuscript damage, because no information was given in the first place, or because the information is given in impenetrably cryptic terms. Permitted values: "deleted", "msDamage", "notGiven", "notUnderstood".
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • deleted
  • msDamage
  • notGiven
  • notUnderstood
@keyprovides an externally-defined means of identifying the entity (or entities) being named, using a coded value of some kind.
Status Required
Legal values are:
  • absentPerson
  • absentShip
  • aCold
  • aegilops
  • aegritudo
  • aegritudoPassions
  • afflicted
  • afflictedPassions
  • ague
  • alchemy
  • aliveOrDead
  • alteration
  • amiss
  • amissPassions
  • animalDeathAndDisease
  • ankles
  • apoplexy
  • appetite
  • arms
  • asthma
  • astrologyAlchemy
  • back
  • badBreath
  • badDreams
  • bedridden
  • belching
  • belly
  • bentDouble
  • blackJaundice
  • bladder
  • bladderIncontinence
  • bleeding
  • blisters
  • bloatingAndSwelling
  • bloodletting
  • bloodshot
  • bloodyFlux
  • bloodyUrine
  • boils
  • bones
  • bowels
  • brainMedical
  • brainPassions
  • breasts
  • bruise
  • burning
  • burningAndInflamed
  • businessAffairs
  • canker
  • cannotDigest
  • cannotEat
  • cannotStand
  • cannotSwallow
  • cannotTurn
  • cannotWalk
  • cataract
  • catarrh
  • character
  • chest
  • childbirth
  • childbirthMedical
  • childRearing
  • choler
  • cholericaPassio
  • clearingName
  • cold
  • colic
  • communications
  • consumed
  • controversies
  • conversation
  • convulsions
  • costive
  • cough
  • counsel
  • crazed
  • curable
  • cured
  • currentAffairs
  • currentState
  • currentStateHeading
  • deafness
  • death
  • despair
  • devil
  • diarrhoeaAndBloodyFlux
  • dieFirst
  • discontentment
  • disease
  • diseasePassions
  • diseasesOfTheMind
  • disquieted
  • distemperedMedical
  • distemperedPassions
  • distracted
  • dizziness
  • dizzyAndOrFaint
  • dreams
  • dropsy
  • dry
  • dryAndOrThirsty
  • ears
  • eatingAndDrinkingProblems
  • emotions
  • employeeChoice
  • encounters
  • everywhere
  • evilThoughts
  • excessiveUrination
  • eyes
  • eyesight
  • eyeTroubles
  • face
  • faintness
  • fairyPinched
  • fallingSickness
  • fancies
  • fear
  • feebleness
  • feet
  • fertility
  • fever
  • feverChillsAndSweating
  • fidelity
  • financeAndProperty
  • fingers
  • fistula
  • fits
  • fitsAndConvulsions
  • fitsPassions
  • flatus
  • flesh
  • flushing
  • flux
  • foaming
  • foolish
  • fortune
  • frantic
  • fretting
  • friendship
  • frighted
  • fundament
  • gambling
  • generalFuture
  • genitalia
  • gifts
  • girlOrBoy
  • gnawing
  • gonorrhoea
  • gout
  • greenJaundice
  • greenSickness
  • griefMedical
  • griefPassions
  • griping
  • gripingsGnawingsAndStitches
  • groin
  • grossHumours
  • guts
  • haemorrhoids
  • hairLoss
  • hands
  • hardness
  • haunted
  • head
  • headAndNeck
  • headPassions
  • hearing
  • hearingProblems
  • hearingThings
  • heart
  • heartPassions
  • heartTrembling
  • heaviness
  • helpOrNo
  • hernia
  • herniaFistulaAndHaemorrhoids
  • hiccups
  • hips
  • history
  • hoarseness
  • hot
  • hotAndCold
  • hotUrine
  • huckbone
  • hypochondriacPassion
  • idleHeaded
  • idleTalk
  • illness
  • illnessesNamed
  • illnessGeneral
  • illnessPassions
  • impostume
  • impotence
  • incomprehension
  • incontinencePassions
  • infirmity
  • issue
  • itch
  • jaundice
  • jaundiceHeading
  • jealousy
  • joints
  • journeys
  • kidneys
  • knees
  • lameness
  • lameNumbOrParalysed
  • lask
  • laughing
  • lean
  • legalMatters
  • legs
  • leprosy
  • lesionsAndAbscesses
  • letters
  • lifeExpectancy
  • lifeStories
  • lightheadedPassions
  • limbs
  • limbsAndJoints
  • liveOrDie
  • liveOrDieMedical
  • liver
  • loins
  • looseness
  • lossAndTheft
  • lostMind
  • lostSenses
  • lostWits
  • lumps
  • lunatic
  • lungs
  • mad
  • malignantFever
  • maritalProspects
  • maritalRelations
  • marriageSexFamilyGeneration
  • measles
  • medical
  • medicalCounsel
  • melancholy
  • memoryLoss
  • mendOrNo
  • mendOrNoPassions
  • mendOrPair
  • menstrualProblems
  • menstruation
  • migraine
  • mind
  • mindReading
  • miscarriage
  • mopish
  • morbus
  • morbusGallicus
  • morbusPassions
  • mother
  • nausea
  • nauseaAndVomiting
  • nauseaPhlegm
  • navel
  • newAgue
  • noCourses
  • noMilk
  • nonMedicalState
  • nose
  • notWell
  • notWellPassions
  • noUrine
  • noUseOfPart
  • numbness
  • occupation
  • pacing
  • pain
  • painAndPricking
  • painfulUrination
  • pale
  • palsy
  • partsOfTheBody
  • paternity
  • personalAffairs
  • personalRelations
  • phthisis
  • pinched
  • pining
  • placeList
  • plague
  • planetStricken
  • pleurisy
  • poisoned
  • pox
  • practitioner
  • preaching
  • predictive
  • preferment
  • pregnancy
  • preventative
  • pricking
  • prison
  • privateSpiritualExperiences
  • problemCause
  • prognosis
  • pulling
  • punishment
  • purples
  • raging
  • rattling
  • raving
  • readyToStopWind
  • recipe
  • redEyes
  • regimen
  • reinsOfTheBack
  • religiousDoubts
  • religiousExperience
  • report
  • reportPassions
  • requestingBloodletting
  • requestingPrayer
  • requestingSigil
  • requestingTreatment
  • residence
  • respiratoryPhlegm
  • respiratoryProblems
  • rheum
  • rheumy
  • rising
  • risingOfLights
  • romanticRelations
  • rumours
  • running
  • sadness
  • sciatica
  • scouring
  • screaming
  • scrofula
  • scurvy
  • secretEnemies
  • seeingThings
  • send
  • senses
  • shivering
  • shooting
  • shortWinded
  • shoulders
  • sickness
  • sicknessPassions
  • sides
  • sightlessness
  • sigils
  • sinews
  • skin
  • sleepiness
  • sleeplessness
  • sleeplessnessPassions
  • sleepProblems
  • sore
  • sorrow
  • sottish
  • speechless
  • speechlessPassions
  • speechProblem
  • speechProblems
  • spitting
  • spittingBlood
  • spleen
  • splenetic
  • spots
  • squinsy
  • stalking
  • state
  • stateBody
  • stateDisease
  • stiffness
  • stitch
  • stomach
  • stone
  • stoneAndStrangury
  • stoneColic
  • stoopedBentOrStiff
  • strain
  • strangeAffliction
  • strangeAfflictionPassions
  • strangury
  • struck
  • studentChoice
  • stuffed
  • suckling
  • surfeit
  • sweating
  • swelling
  • swooning
  • symptomsSpecified
  • teeth
  • temptedAndSuicidal
  • theology
  • thighs
  • thirst
  • throatMouth
  • tinnitus
  • torso
  • torsoHeading
  • trance
  • trauma
  • treasure
  • treatment
  • treatmentHeading
  • trembling
  • troubled
  • trust
  • turba
  • tympany
  • uncomfortable
  • unfortunatePlaces
  • unidentifiedAnxietyAndMelancholy
  • unidentifiedMedical
  • unidentifiedPassions
  • unknown
  • unspecifiedMedical
  • unspecifiedPassions
  • urinaryProblems
  • vertigo
  • visits
  • voidingPhlegm
  • vomitingBlood
  • waist
  • wasting
  • wastingHeading
  • watering
  • weak
  • weakPassions
  • weather
  • weeping
  • wet
  • wheezing
  • whetherToPractise
  • whites
  • wholeBody
  • whooping
  • wild
  • wind
  • windColic
  • windHeading
  • witchcraftAndDevil
  • witchcraftSufferedMedical
  • witchcraftSufferedNonMedical
  • witchcraftSuspect
  • wits
  • womensMatters
  • worldlyAffairs
  • worms
  • yellowJaundice
Note

If no judgment is given, or the judgment does not in itself indicate the nature of the enquiry, but the presence of a urine note and/or prescribed treatment, and/or the nature of the event information (e.g. ‘she recovered and did well’), strongly suggests that the question was of a medical nature, an @evidence value of "inferred" should be applied.

The querent should not be pointed to by a <person> element within <cb:topic> if he or she is not the same person as the subject.

Example
<cb:topic key="unspecifiedMedical" evidence="internal"><person sameAs="#js"/></cb:topic>
This is by a considerable margin the commonest type of topic to be found in Napier’s records. The @evidence value "internal" indicates that the problem is not specified in the transcribed part of the entry (the question) but the judgment makes it plain that the enquiry was of a medical nature. In Forman’s records, the commonest @key value of <cb:topic> is "diz", which effectively means the same thing, except that Forman usually does at least state in the question section that the enquiry is medical in nature, whereas Napier usually does not.
Example
<cb:topic key="nonDizDisease"><person sameAs="#am"/></cb:topic> <cb:topic key="witchcraft"><person sameAs="#am"/><person sameAs="#jw"/><person sameAs="#ds"/></cb:topic>
In this rather more complicated example (CASE11996), two different questions are being asked, and in one case the same question is being asked about three different people. The question states that Alice Mason (the subject) is ‘straingly handled’, indicating a medical problem not specified as ‘diz’ or ‘disease’, while Jane Warren and Dorothy Sumner (the objects) are suspected of bewitching her (so all three belong within the witchcraft topic). Since all this information is included in the question section, no @evidence value is required, as both topics are apparent from the transcribed text and users do not have to take our word for them.
<cb:treatment/>
<cb:treatment/> (treatment) indicates that the entry either records a particular treatment recommended or administered by the practitioner, or includes an explicit statement that no treatment was offered. If the prescribed treatment involves one or more sigils, <cb:treatment> takes a @type value of "sigil": this may be either as well as or instead of a <cb:treatment> element with no @type value.
Namespacehttps://casebooks.lib.cam.ac.uk/ns/1.0
Attributesatt.casebooks.certainty (@evidence) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
@typeThis attribute should be applied, with the value "sigil", if the prescribed treatment consists of or involves a sigil or sigils. This may be either instead of or as well as a <cb:treatment> element with no @type value, denoting a more conventional treatment or treatments.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • sigil
Note

Mentions of previous treatments administered by the practitioner, or the effects of such treatments, should be recorded as <cb:info type="event" />, not <cb:treatment>. Mentions of previous treatments administered by another practitioner should be regarded as part of the judgment.

Sigil prescriptions, which most often occur in cases of mental disorder and/or suspected witchcraft, are generally presented in a very cryptic fashion in the source and can be difficult to spot. They typically consist of a capital ‘S’ (for sigil or sigillum) followed by the alchemical symbol for a metal, usually but not always tin (). This is sometimes followed by further details about how and/or when to prepare and/or present the finished sigil, e.g. ‘in serico’ (in silk), ‘w[i]th a riband’, ‘Aq. hyp.’ (we are not sure quite what this means but it clearly has something to do with the preparation of sigils, so it and similar formulae are useful indicators of the presence of a sigil prescription).

<cell>
<cell> contains one cell of a table.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.tableDecoration (@role, @rows, @cols)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<change>
<change> documents significant stages in the creation, transcription, checking or processing of an electronic file (if in <revisionDesc>) or the original artefact (if in <listChange>).
Attributesatt.ascribed (@who) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.docStatusatt.global (n, xml:lang, xml:base, xml:space, @style, @rendition, @xml:id) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
Note

Checking a file counts as a ‘change’ even if the checker has not in fact altered anything in it. The file itself may not have changed but its status has.

Example
<revisionDesc> <change when="2009-12-12">Data entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet by <name xml:id="rralley">Robert Ralley</name> as part of the Casebooks Pilot Project.</change> <change when="2010-07-05">XML file created by <name xml:id="mhawkins">Michael Hawkins</name> from Casebooks Pilot Project data.</change> <change when="2010-09-11">Transcribed by <name sameAs="#rralley">Robert Ralley</name>.</change> <change when="2010-09-16">Checked by <name xml:id="jyoung">John Young</name>.</change> <change when="2012-07-05">Facsimile coding added by <name sameAs="mhawkins">Michael Hawkins</name>.</change> </revisionDesc>
Example
<listChange ordered="true"> <change xml:id="stage1" when="1629-09-02"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> held the consultation and wrote out the entry.</change> <change xml:id="stage2"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> added information about subsequent events.</change> <!--<change xml:id="stage1">Robert Wallis wrote the entry.</change> <change xml:id="stage2">Richard Napier added further judgment.</change> <change xml:id="stage3">Richard Napier supplied information about subsequent events.</change>--> </listChange>
<char>
<char> (character) provides descriptive information about a character.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<char xml:id="circledU4EBA"> <charName>CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH 4EBA</charName> <charProp> <unicodeName>character-decomposition-mapping</unicodeName> <value>circle</value> </charProp> <charProp> <localName>daikanwa</localName> <value>36</value> </charProp> <mapping type="standard">人</mapping> </char>
<charDecl>
<charDecl> (character declarations) provides information about nonstandard characters and glyphs.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<charDecl><char xml:id="aENL"><charName>LATIN LETTER ENLARGED SMALL A</charName><mapping type="standard">a</mapping></char></charDecl>
<charName>
<charName> (character name) contains the name of a character, expressed following Unicode conventions.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

The name must follow Unicode conventions for character naming. Projects working in similar fields are recommended to coordinate and publish their list of <charName>s to facilitate data exchange.

Example
<charName>CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH 4EBA</charName>
<choice>
<choice> contains the code for alternative renditions of the same text string, typically consisting of <orig>/<reg>, <sic>/<corr> or <abbr>/<expan>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

<choice> may nest within any child of <choice> if, for instance, it is necessary to provide a correction of an erroneous glyph or abbreviation before providing a regularisation of the corrected version.

Example
<choice><orig>W<hi rend="overline">llm</hi></orig><reg>William</reg></choice>
Example
<p>… <choice><sic>mayed</sic><corr>maryed</corr></choice> 15 yeres …</p>
<closer>
<closer> groups together salutations, datelines, and similar phrases appearing as a final group at the end of a division, especially of a letter.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<collection>
<collection> records the collection within which the source document is held. For Casebooks Project purposes, this is always ‘Ashmole Mss’.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type)
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="234">MS Ashmole 234, f. 1r</idno> &Forman001; </msIdentifier>
<corr>
<corr> (correction) contains a corrected reading of what is considered to be an erroneous text string in the original.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence)
@typeis invoked if the original text should not be there. Permitted values: "noText" (there should never have been any text there in the first place), "delText" (the text should have been deleted).
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • noText
  • delText
Note

<corr> always follows <sic> (containing the original, erroneous text) within <choice>.

Where the erroneous text comprises part of a longer word or numeral, the <sic> and <corr> elements should contain the whole word or numeral, even if only one character requires correction.

The precise distinction between "delText" and "noText" hinges on the sometimes unanswerable question of whether the original author failed to spot his mistake or intended to delete it but forgot to. However, there are a very considerable number of examples in Napier’s records where it is quite clear that he has supplied a correction for his own mistake but not deleted the mistake itself (see the third example above).

Where the content of <sic> includes <lb>, it is not necessary to repeat this in <corr> (and in any case not always clear where the line break would have occurred if the text had been correctly written).

Where the content of <corr> is a symbol or abbreviation that would otherwise be supplied with an expansion using <orig>/<reg>, it should not be expanded within <corr>. Instead, the entire <choice> string should nest within the <orig> element of a further <choice> string, with the regularisation of the corrected version appearing as the content of <reg> (see the fourth example above).

Example
… her leg swelleth and hath an <choice><sic>issoe</sic><corr>issue</corr></choice> …
Example
… Ian Brown of <choice><sic>of</sic><corr type="noText"/></choice> Akely …
Example
… the <choice><sic>4</sic><corr type="delText"/></choice> <add place="supralinear">5</add> may 1630 …
Example
<choice><orig><choice><sic>h</sic><corr>&SaturnSymbol;</corr></choice></orig><reg type="gloss">Saturday</reg></choice>
<correspAction>
<correspAction> (correspondence action) contains a structured description of the place, the name of a person/organization and the date related to the sending/receiving of a message or any other action related to the correspondence.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey)
@typedescribes the nature of the action.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
  • sent
  • received
  • transmitted
  • redirected
  • forwarded
Example
<correspAction type="sent"><persName>Adelbert von Chamisso</persName><settlement>Vertus</settlement><date when="1807-01-29"/></correspAction>
<correspContext>
<correspContext> (correspondence context) provides references to preceding or following correspondence related to this piece of correspondence.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<correspContext><ptr type="next" subtype="toAuthor" target="http://tei.ibi.hu-berlin.de/berliner-intellektuelle/manuscript?Brief101VarnhagenanBoeckh"/><ptr type="prev" subtype="fromAuthor" target="http://tei.ibi.hu-berlin.de/berliner-intellektuelle/manuscript?Brief103BoeckhanVarnhagen"/></correspContext>
Example
<correspContext><ref type="prev" target="http://weber-gesamtausgabe.de/A040962"> Previous letter of <persName>Carl Maria von Weber</persName> to <persName>Caroline Brandt</persName>: <date when="1816-12-30">December 30, 1816</date></ref><ref type="next" target="http://weber-gesamtausgabe.de/A041003"> Next letter of <persName>Carl Maria von Weber</persName> to <persName>Caroline Brandt</persName>: <date when="1817-01-05">January 5, 1817</date></ref></correspContext>
<correspDesc>
<correspDesc> (correspondence description) contains a description of the actions related to one act of correspondence.
Attributesatt.declarableatt.canonical (@key, @ref) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
Example
<correspDesc><correspAction type="sent"><persName>Carl Maria von Weber</persName><settlement>Dresden</settlement><date when="1817-06-23">23 June 1817</date></correspAction><correspAction type="received"><persName>Caroline Brandt</persName><settlement>Prag</settlement></correspAction><correspContext><ref type="prev" target="http://www.weber-gesamtausgabe.de/A041209">Previous letter of <persName>Carl Maria von Weber</persName> to <persName>Caroline Brandt</persName>: <date from="1817-06-19" to="1817-06-20">June 19/20, 1817</date></ref><ref type="next" target="http://www.weber-gesamtausgabe.de/A041217">Next letter of <persName>Carl Maria von Weber</persName> to <persName>Caroline Brandt</persName>: <date when="1817-06-27">June 27, 1817</date></ref></correspContext></correspDesc>
<country>
<country> is used only within <msIdentifier> to state the country in which the source document is held.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<country>UK</country>
<creation>
<creation> contains information about the creation of a text.
Note

There may be any number of <change> elements from 2 upward within <listChange>.

Example
<creation> <listChange ordered="true"> <change xml:id="stage1" when="1629-09-02"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> held the consultation and wrote out the entry.</change> <change xml:id="stage2"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> added information about subsequent events.</change> </listChange> </creation>
Example
<creation> <listChange ordered="true"> <change xml:id="stage1" when="1630-01-15"><name sameAs="#unknown-f">Unidentified (1624–1634)</name> held the consultation and wrote out the entry.</change> <change xml:id="stage2"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> corrected the date.</change> </listChange> </creation>
Example
<creation> <listChange ordered="true"> <change when="1598-08-25" xml:id="stage1"><name sameAs="#sforman">Simon Forman</name> took the consultation and wrote out the original entry.</change> <change when="1625-07-09" xml:id="stage2"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> copied the entry out.</change> </listChange> </creation>
<date>
<date> records a date or date range using ISO format (yyyy-mm-dd).
Attributesatt.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.typed (@type) att.global (n, @style, @rendition, @xml:id, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (synch, next, prev, @corresp, @sameAs, @copyOf, @exclude) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source) att.datable.custom (notBefore-custom, notAfter-custom, from-custom, to-custom, datingPoint, datingMethod, @when-custom)
@n(natural language expression) records the day of the week (where known), in natural language.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.text
Legal values are:
  • Monday
  • Tuesday
  • Wednesday
  • Thursday
  • Friday
  • Saturday
  • Sunday
@whendefines a specific date.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@notBeforedefines the earliest possible date or beginning of a date range where this is not known precisely.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@notAfterdefines the latest possible date or end of a date range where this is not known precisely.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@fromdefines the beginning of a date range.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@todefines the end of a date range.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@notBefore-customdefines the earliest possible beginning of a temporal range where both date and time can be specified.
Derived fromatt.datable.custom
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
@notAfter-customdefines the latest possible end of a temporal range where both date and time can be specified.
Derived fromatt.datable.custom
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
@from-customdefines the beginning of a temporal range where both date and time can be specified.
Derived fromatt.datable.custom
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
@to-customdefines the end of a temporal range where both date and time can be specified.
Derived fromatt.datable.custom
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
@evidenceindicates the nature of the evidence supporting the date value.
Derived fromatt.editLike
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • conjecture
  • external
  • extrapolated
  • inferred
  • internal
Note

Where two or more mutually exclusive dates are recorded for a given consultation or event, or (as happens more frequently) the date given in the entry is open to two (or more) interpretations, the alternatives should both or all be given, using the @xml:id and @exclude mechanism as illustrated in the last example above and explained in more detail in the Guidelines.

If <date> occurs within <birth>, <death> or <event>, an @n value should only be included if one is stated, correctly, in the original. If the source text gives a day of the week that is not compatible with the recorded date, it simply does not seem worth attempting to cater for all the possible causes of the error (is the day wrong, is the date wrong, is the year wrong, is the whole thing wrong?) and the date should simply be given as stated in the document, with no @n value.

<date> also appears within <publicationStmt> but is there generated automatically when the file is released online.

Example
<date when="1606-06-06" n="Friday"/>
Example
<date notBefore="1606-06-05" notAfter="1606-06-07"/>
Example
<date from="1605-01-12" to="1607-09-08"/>
Example
<date notBefore-custom="1604-03-07T18:05:00" notAfter-custom="1604-03-08T08:15:00"/>
This example indicates ‘some time between 6:05 pm on 7 March 1604 and 8:15 am on 8 March 1604’. This mechanism is typically used if it can be inferred that an entry was written after the last securely datable and timable entry before it and before the first one after it, but no date or time is given in the entry itself.
Example
<date when="1601-02-01" n="Sunday" xml:id="date1" exclude="#date2"/> <date when="1601-02-02" n="Monday" xml:id="date2" exclude="#date1"/>
This example means ‘either Sunday 1 or Monday 2 February 1601’.
<dateline>
<dateline> contains a brief description of the place, date, time, etc. of production of a letter, newspaper story, or other work, prefixed or suffixed to it as a kind of heading or trailer.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<death>
<death> (death) encodes information drawn from the entry in question about a person’s death, such as its date, time and/or place.
Attributesatt.editLike (@evidence) att.global (xml:lang, @style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • proclaimed
  • assumed
  • verified
  • clinical
  • brain
  • natural
  • unnatural
  • fragmentation
  • dissolution
Note

This attribute is not intended to express the cause of death.

Note

<placeName> should be included only in the very rare cases where the place of death is explicitly stated in the entry. It should not simply be assumed that if someone has been described as having fallen ill in a particular place, that is probably where he or she died.

Example
<death> <date notBefore="1604-09-15" notAfter="1605-09-17"/> </death>
Example
<death> <date when="1597-02-12" n="Saturday"/><time when="10:30:00"/><placeName sameAs="#address1"/> </death>
Example
<death><date notBefore="1599-10-01" notAfter="1599-10-31" precision="low" evidence="internal"/><placeName>the <lb/>spittell in southwork</placeName></death>
In this example, the untranscribed portion of the text (CASE4394) includes the comment ‘he fell Lame and died in the spittell in southwork 1599 about october’.
<del>
<del> (deletion) marks deleted text with @type describing the type of deletion.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.transcriptional (status, @cause, @seq) att.editLike (@evidence) att.written (@hand)
@statuswith the value "erroneous" indicates that the deletion is itself a mistake, i.e. the text has been deleted but should not have been.
Derived fromatt.transcriptional
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • erroneous
@typedescribes the type of deletion. Permitted values: "blockStrikethrough" (whole section struck through en bloc), "cancelled" (heavier deletion), "erased" (this text has been physically rubbed off of the page), "over" (this text string is overwritten by another), "strikethrough" (continuous horizontal line through a text string), "redactedBlockStrikethrough" (block strikethrough apparently indicating that the practitioner wished to suppress the entry rather than correct an error), and "redactedCancelled" (cancellation functioning as suppression rather than correction).
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • strikethrough
  • blockStrikethrough
  • cancelled
  • erased
  • over
  • redactedBlockStrikethrough
  • redactedCancelled
Note

Text tagged <del type="over"> will always, by definition, be followed immediately by text tagged <add place="over">.

Where added text replaces deleted text, the two strings should nest in a <subst> element and the deleted text should be transcribed first. This applies even in cases where the caret mark or other insertion indicator appears, physically, before the <del>. If the added text has the @place value "over" and/or it replaces a character or characters that are only part of a word, number or other textual unit, it should follow the deleted text with no space in between the two elements. Otherwise, one space should be left between the <del> and <add> elements.

If <add> and <del> are co-extensive – i.e. the added text has been deleted in its entirety but the surrounding text is undeleted – <del> should nest directly within <add> rather than vice versa. However, <add> may nest within <del> if the insertion represents part of a larger text string that was subsequently deleted in its entirety.

If the content of <del> is a symbol or abbreviation that would otherwise be supplied with an expansion using <orig>/<reg>, or a mistake that would otherwise be supplied with a correction using <sic>/<corr>, the deleted should not be expanded or corrected.

<del> may also nest within <del> if it appears that some part of a text string had been deleted before the larger text string was.

Example
1 <del type="strikethrough">April</del> May 1601
Example
… of <subst><del type="over">6</del><add place="over">7</add></subst>0 yeres …
<desc>
<desc> (description) contains a succinct prose description of whatever is documented by the element it nests in. For the purposes of transcribing Casebooks entries, this is invariably <trait>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.translatable (@versionDate) att.typed (@type)
Note

The content of <desc> should be based so far as possible on the original text but with modernised spelling and if necessary in English translation: thus the ‘Kentish man’ in the above example (CASE8592) is given in the original as ‘a Kintesh man’, while ‘a wallicus’ (CASE8781) becomes a ‘Welshman’.

This element is also used, in other contexts, in project documentation files and the master lists, but transcribers need not concern themselves with its usage there.

Example
<trait type="regionalIdentity"><desc>Kentish man</desc></trait>
<district>
<district> contains the name of any kind of subdivision of a settlement, such as a parish, ward, or other administrative or geographic unit.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<div>
<div> (text division) contains either the whole of a text or a subdivision of it.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.divLike (@org, @sample) (att.fragmentable (@part)) att.typed (@type) att.declaring (@decls) att.written (@hand)
Note

As in the examples given here, if a column or page break occurs outside the transcribed portion of the text, <cb> should be placed outside <div>. If, however, the column or page break occurs within the transcribed portion, it should nest in <div>.

Example
<div><p>… William Garton of 31 yers 1597 the 15 Ian&flourish; Saturday An&flourish; m&flourish; 30 p 9 Diz</p> </div> <div><cb xml:id="colB" n="b"/> <p><lb/>William Garton &slash; in bishops <lb/>gat strete&slash;</p> </div>
In this example (CASE1076), the entry is interrupted at the top of column B by one for Mrs Dixon, though the two parts of William Garton’s clearly form a single entry.
Example
<div> <p><lb/>Isbell Androwes of 45 <lb/><rs type="address" xml:id="address1">of Potters Perry</rs> march <lb/>19 &WednesdayN; h. 1. 20. p m <lb/>1600</p> </div> &astroChart; <cb xml:id="colB" n="b"/>
In this example (CASE10186), there is a treatment note and event information in column B but as neither of these has been transcribed the <cb> is placed outside the <div> (and consequently does not appear in the online display, to avoid making it look to the uninitiated as though something is missing from the transcription).
<editor>
<editor> contains a secondary statement of responsibility for a bibliographic item, for example the name of an individual, institution or organization, (or of several such) acting as editor, compiler, translator, etc.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Note

A consistent format should be adopted.

Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use generally recognized authority lists for the exact form of personal names.

Example
<editor role="Technical_Editor">Ron Van den Branden</editor><editor role="Editor-in-Chief">John Walsh</editor><editor role="Managing_Editor">Anne Baillot</editor>
<education>
<education> contains a description of the educational experience of a person.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • primary
  • secondary
  • undergraduate
  • graduate
  • residency
  • apprenticeship
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<encodingDesc>
<encodingDesc> (encoding description) is only used, for Casebooks purposes, as a container for <samplingDecl>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

NB: Editors will only need to use <encodingDesc> when a case is not subject to our normal sampling policies. At present, that means that the only time that it will be used is when the entire entry has been transcribed. In order to ensure that this information is entered consistently, you should add an <encodingDesc> element and place &wholeEntry; inside it (as in the first example above, which generates the second).

Should you feel that an additional class of <samplingDecl> needs to be created, please contact the Senior Editors so that it can be debated.

Example
<encodingDesc> &wholeEntry; </encodingDesc>
Example
<encodingDesc> <samplingDecl xml:id="wholeEntry"> <p>This entry has been transcribed in its entirety, with the exception of any charts or astrological notes.</p> </samplingDecl> </encodingDesc>
<event>
<event> records any significant event in a participant’s life other than birth, death or anything covered by <relation>. The currently available @type values are christening, baptism and burial, though others can be added should the need arise.
Attributesatt.editLike (@evidence) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.global (xml:lang, @style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@typestates what type of event it is. Permitted values: "baptism", "burial" or "christening".
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • baptism
  • burial
  • christening
Example
<event type="baptism"><p>Baptised on <date when="1587-01-01" sameAs="#date1">1 January 1587</date> at <time when="11:00:00" sameAs="#time1">11 am</time> at <placeName sameAs="#address1">St Pancras&rsquo; Church</placeName>.</p></event>
<ex>
<ex> (editorial expansion) contains a sequence of letters added by an editor or transcriber when expanding an abbreviation.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<expan>
<expan> (expansion) contains an expansion, and nests together with <abbr> (containing the abbreviated version) in a <choice> element.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence)
Note

This element is not used in transcriptions of Casebooks entries, only in those of the more discursive guides to astrology or similar texts.

<expan> always follows <abbr> within <choice>.

Example
<p>… here the number endeth on Agnes, <choice><abbr>therf.</abbr><expan>therfore</expan></choice> Agnes shall die first</p>
<facsimile>
<facsimile> contains the element <graphic>, which in turn contains a pointer to an image (or pointers to images) of the source document.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls)
Note

This element is entered by the technical director when images become available from the Bodleian Library. If it does not already exist when transcription begins, editors should not add it since it will be automatically added by the technical director when the files are cleared for publication.

When images are already available from the Bodleian Library before transcription begins, the volume will be foliated and that information will be used to create the template files for use by the editors. This means that there will be no need to create additional files for supplementary sheets included within the document (for instance a second f. 138) since it will have been done automatically.

The only time editors should change the information in this element is when: a) the <facsimile> element already exists, and b) a case spans more than one page. Where both a) and b) are the case, the editor should copy the appropriate <graphic> from the relevant file in 00-Facsimile and paste it into <facsimile>. Be sure that the <graphic> elements are placed in the sequence in which they appear when reading the case. There is, however, no need to repeat <graphic> elements if a case crosses a page boundary back to a previous sheet, for instance if it begins on f. 50v, continues on f. 51r and then moves back to f. 50v (in which case only two <graphic> elements are needed).

Example
<facsimile><graphic url="page1.png"/><surface><graphic url="page2-highRes.png"/><graphic url="page2-lowRes.png"/></surface><graphic url="page3.png"/><graphic url="page4.png"/></facsimile>
Example
<facsimile><surface ulx="0" uly="0" lrx="200" lry="300"><graphic url="Bovelles-49r.png"/></surface></facsimile>
<faith>
<faith> specifies the faith, religion, or belief set of a person.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • practicing
  • clandestine
  • patrilineal
  • matrilineal
  • convert
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<figDesc>
<figDesc> (description of figure) contains a brief prose description of the appearance or content of a graphic figure, for use when documenting an image without displaying it.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<figure>
<figure> records the existence and position of an astrological or geomantic chart, whether complete, partial and/or deleted, or of a space left blank for one.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type)
@subtype(subtype) provides a sub-categorization of the element, if needed
Status Optional
Datatype
Note

The assorted permissible permutations of this element are represented by the entities listed in subsection 4 of the Content Tagging section of the guidelines. In the vast majority of cases, it will appear at the end of a document, after the close of the main or final <div> element. In more convoluted entries, however, typically those running to more than one column or page, it may occur between <div>s.

Any number of <figure>s, from nought upward, may be recorded in a given file.

Example
&astroChart;
Example
&astroChartDeleted;
Example
&geoChart;
<fileDesc>
<fileDesc> (file description) describes the electronic text and its source.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<fileDesc> <titleStmt> <title xml:id="main_title">CASE5548</title> </titleStmt> <publicationStmt> <publisher>The Casebooks Project</publisher> <pubPlace>Cambridge</pubPlace> <date when="2010-07-05">05 July 2010</date> </publicationStmt> <sourceDesc> <bibl type="positionOnPage">uL</bibl> <msDesc> <msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="219">MS Ashmole 219, f. 90r</idno> &Forman004; </msIdentifier> <msContents> <msItem> <locus from="0090r" to="0090r"/> <title sameAs="#main_title"/> </msItem> </msContents> </msDesc> </sourceDesc> </fileDesc>
<floruit>
<floruit> specifies a date or date range when a person mentioned in a case is said to have been active, if there is a significant disjuncture between this and the date of the consultation itself (i.e. he or she has been dead for a very long time).
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.editLike (@evidence)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Example
<floruit notBefore="1066" notAfter="1100"/>
<foreign>
<foreign> marks up text written in a different language from the main language of the document, or from the text immediately surrounding it, using the @xml:lang values en, la, el, fr, he (English, Latin, Greek, French, Hebrew).
AttributesAttributesatt.global (xml:lang, @style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@declsidentifies one or more declarable elements within the header, which are understood to apply to the element bearing this attribute and its content.
Derived fromatt.declaring
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • #original_source
@xml:lang(language) indicates the language of the element content using a tag generated according to BCP 47.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Required
Datatype teidata.language
Note

English may of course be considered ‘foreign’ if the main language of the document is anything else.

Example
Mrs Blundell the younger the Cap. wife <foreign xml:lang="la">quærit utrum sit gravida</foreign> June 14 &Thursday; h. 5. p m 1610
(CASE25025)
<forename>
<forename> contains a forename, given or baptismal name.
Attributesatt.casebooks.minimal.certainty (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) )
@typeexplains the type of forename. Permitted values: "alternate" (the second of two alternative forenames by which a person was known), "variant" (the second of two alternative forenames by which a person was known, where the two forenames closely resemble one another but are sufficiently distinct not to be different spellings of the same name) "deckname" (a false forename either given by a querent or used by a practitioner to conceal someone's identity), or "nickname" (for the extremely unusual situation in which we know that a forename was informally bestowed rather than the name with which that person was christened, and was not given to conceal the person's identity). Typically in case files only alternate is needed; the others should not be used without clearance from a senior editor.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • alternate
  • deckname
  • nickname
  • variant
Note

If a forename is unclear or partially illegible in the original, the legible or conjecturable parts should be included in the header with appropriate <unclear>, <supplied> and/or <gap> elements.

Example
<persName><forename>Elizabeth</forename> <surname>Blundell</surname></persName>
<formula>
<formula> is used in Casebooks solely in the extremely rare event of needing to code a vulgar fraction. This should be done following the template below (for one over two).
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.notated (@notation)
Example
<formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mfrac><mn>1</mn><mn>2</mn></mfrac></math></formula>
<funder>
<funder> (funding body) specifies the name of an individual, institution, or organization responsible for the funding of a project or text.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<fw>
<fw> (forme work) contains a running head (e.g. a header, footer), catchword, or similar material appearing on the current page.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.placement (@place) att.written (@hand)
@typeclassifies the material encoded according to some useful typology.
Status Recommended
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • header
  • footer
  • pageNum
  • lineNum
  • sig
  • catch
Note

This element is not used in transcriptions of Casebooks entries, only in those of the more discursive guides to astrology or similar texts.

<g>
<g> (character or glyph) represents a glyph, or a non-standard character.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
@refpoints to a description of the character or glyph intended.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Note

The name g is short for gaiji, which is the Japanese term for a non-standardized character or glyph.

Example
<g ref="#ctlig">ct</g>
This example points to a <glyph> element with the identifier ctlig like the following:
<glyph xml:id="ctlig"><!-- here we describe the particular ct-ligature intended --></glyph>
Example
<g ref="#per-glyph">per</g>
The medieval brevigraph per could similarly be considered as an individual glyph, defined in a <glyph> element with the identifier per-glyph as follows:
<glyph xml:id="per-glyph"><!-- ... --></glyph>
<gap>
<gap> indicates a point at which material has been omitted from the transcription because it is lost or illegible.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.timed (@start, @end) att.editLike (@evidence) att.dimensions (unit, extent, @quantity, @precision, @scope) att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)
@unitdefines the units (if any) in which the length of the omission is being measured. Permitted values: "chars" (characters), "words", "lines". Not needed if the @extent value is "unclear".
Status Optional
Datatype
Legal values are:
  • chars
  • words
  • lines
@extentrecords the extent of the omission, expressed as an integer, or as "unclear" if it is impossible to assign a numerical value.
Derived fromatt.dimensions
Status Required
Datatype string
@reasonexplains why the text is missing from the transcription. Permitted values: "del" (illegible deletion), "binding" (text is lost in the gutter due to over-zealous binding), "blot" (blotted), "blotDel" (text is obliterated by what could either be an accidental blot or a deliberate deletion), "code" (text is written in a code that we can neither decipher nor reproduce), "copy" (poor quality of the image being transcribed from), "damage" (manuscript damage), "faded", "foxed", "hand" (indecipherably poor handwriting), "omitted" (text appears to have been omitted from the original document but we have no means of supplying it), "over" (text is impossible to read because it is written over other text — if it is impossible to read because other text is written over it, it counts as "del").
Status Required
Datatype
Legal values are:
  • binding
  • bleedthrough
  • blot
  • blotDel
  • code
  • copy
  • damage
  • del
  • faded
  • foxed
  • omitted
  • over
  • hand
Note

<gap> is, by definition, an empty element.

If the @reason value is "del", <gap> must nest, directly or indirectly, in <del>.

Example
<p>160<subst><del type="over"><gap reason="del" extent="1" unit="chars"/></del><add place="over">6</add></subst></p>
Example
<p>… Robart Smith of <gap reason="damage" unit="words" extent="1"/> Woulson …</p>
Example
<p>… he sent me a c<gap reason="binding" extent="unclear"/> <lb/>and some apels …</p>
<genName>
<genName> (genName) contains standard formulae used to distinguish between people who otherwise have the same name but are from different generations.
Attributesatt.casebooks.minimal.certainty (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) )
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • additional
  • prefix
Note

It seems that Napier consistently uses ‘old’ and ‘young’, in formulae such as ‘Old Mr Smith’ or ‘Young Mrs Blundell’, as <genName>s rather than simple adjectives.

Example
<persName><roleName>Mrs</roleName> <surname>Shaw</surname> <genName>the elder</genName></persName>
Example
<persName><genName>Young</genName> <roleName>Mrs</roleName> <surname>Blundell</surname> </persName>
<geo>
<geo> (geographical coordinates) contains any expression of a set of geographic coordinates, representing a point, line, or area on the surface of the earth in some notation.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Example
<geoDecl xml:id="WGS" datum="WGS84">World Geodetic System</geoDecl><geoDecl xml:id="OS" datum="OSGB36">Ordnance Survey</geoDecl><!-- ... --><location><desc>A tombstone plus six lines of Anglo-Saxon text, built into the west tower (on the south side of the archway, at 8 ft. above the ground) of the Church of St. Mary-le-Wigford in Lincoln.</desc><geo decls="#WGS">53.226658 -0.541254</geo><geo decls="#OS">SK 97481 70947</geo></location>
Example
<geo>41.687142 -74.870109</geo>
<geogFeat>
<geogFeat> (geographical feature name) contains a common noun identifying some geographical feature contained within a geographic name, such as valley, mount, etc.
Attributesatt.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<geogName>
<geogName> (geographical name) identifies a name associated with some geographical feature such as Windrush Valley or Mount Sinai.
Attributesatt.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Example
<geogName><geogFeat>Mount</geogFeat><name>Sinai</name></geogName>
<glyph>
<glyph> (character glyph) provides descriptive information about a character glyph.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<glyph xml:id="crossedp"> <glyphName>CROSSED LOWERCASE P</glyphName> <mapping type="standard">p</mapping> <mapping type="PUA">U+E670</mapping> </glyph>
<glyphName>
<glyphName> (character glyph name) contains the name of a glyph, expressed following Unicode conventions for character names.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

For characters of non-ideographic scripts, a name following the conventions for Unicode names should be chosen. For ideographic scripts, an Ideographic Description Sequence (IDS) as described in Chapter 10.1 of the Unicode Standard is recommended where possible. Projects working in similar fields are recommended to coordinate and publish their list of <glyphName>s to facilitate data exchange.

Example
<glyphName>CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH 4EBA</glyphName>
<graphic>
<graphic> contains a pointer to an image (or pointers to images) of the source document.
Attributesatt.typed (@type) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.resourced (@url) att.declaring (@decls) att.media (width, height, @scale) att.internetMedia (@mimeType)
@widthWhere the media are displayed, indicates the display width
Derived fromatt.media
Status Optional
Datatype string
@heightWhere the media are displayed, indicates the display height
Derived fromatt.media
Status Optional
Datatype string
Note

This element is entered by the technical director when images become available. The @n value of <graphic> contains the file name of the image supplied by the Bodleian, which should be used by editors when transcribing.

If a case containing an already existing <facsimile> element spans more than one page, editors should copy the appropriate <graphic> for the new page from the relevant file in 00-Facsimile and paste it into <facsimile>. Please ensure that the <graphic> elements are placed in the sequence in which they appear when reading the case. There is no need to repeat <graphic> elements if a case crosses a page boundary back to a previous sheet, for instance if it begins on f. 50v, continues on f. 51r and then moves back to f. 50v (in which case only two <graphic> elements are needed).

Normally, <graphic> only appears within <TEIHeader>, but it may in principle be included within the body text if there is a need to embed an image within the transcription. In such an event, this will be dealt with by the technical director and the editors need not concern themselves with it.

<handNote>
<handNote> (note on hand) identifies a person whose hand features in the original document, by means of a @sameAs attribute pointing to that person’s @xml:id value as recorded in <listPerson>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.handFeatures (@scribe, @scribeRef, @script, @scriptRef, @medium, @scope)
Example
<handNotes> <handNote sameAs="#sforman">Simon Forman</handNote> </handNotes>
Example
<handNotes> <handNote sameAs="#gjames">Gerence James</handNote> <handNote sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</handNote> </handNotes>
(describing an entry in which both Napier’s hand and that of his curate Gerence James are present).
<handNotes>
<handNotes> contains one or more <handNote>s recording the hand(s) in which the document is written.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<handNotes> <handNote sameAs="#gjames">Gerence James</handNote> <handNote sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</handNote> </handNotes>
<handShift>
<handShift> (change of hand) marks the point at which the hand of an entry changes (if the transcribed section is written in more than one hand), pointing to the identity of the new hand with the @new attribute.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.handFeatures (@scribe, @scribeRef, @script, @scriptRef, @medium, @scope)
@newindicates a <handNote> element describing the hand concerned.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.pointer
Note

This attribute serves the same function as the @hand attribute provided for those elements which are members of the att.transcriptional class. It may be renamed at a subsequent major release.

Note

<handShift> is not needed if the intervention of a second hand is limited to text marked up by an element (such as <add> or <note>) that has its own @hand attribute.

Where more than one hand features in the transcribed portion of an entry, a <handShift> tag linking to the @xml:id value of the person in whose hand the entry begins should be placed at the very beginning of the transcription, immediately after the <lb> at the beginning of the first paragraph, and immediately before the first character of transcribed text. This is not necessary if only one hand features (as is normally the case).

If the chart is in a different hand from the preceding text, a <handShift> element with the relevant @new value should appear as the last thing in the last paragraph of transcribed text preceding the chart.

Example
Isaak morley <handShift new="#sforman"/>of <lb/>Lumbert strete
<head>
<head> (heading) marks a header of any sort, either of a whole document or a sub-section within one.
Attributesatt.typed (@type) att.placement (@place) att.written (@hand) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@rend(rendition) describes the placement of the heading. Permitted values: "right" (right-aligned), "left" (left-aligned), "center" (centred), or "indent0", "indent5", "indent10", "indent15" etc., up to "indent40", to indicate the approximate number of spaces by which a heading is indented if it is indented consistently.
Derived fromatt.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Sample values include:
  • right
  • left
  • center
  • indent0
  • indent5
  • indent10
  • indent15
  • indent20
  • indent25
  • indent30
  • indent35
  • indent40
Note

<head> may only appear as the first element in a <div>, <lg> or <list>.

It is extremely rare for anything definable as a <head> to appear in the consultation records: this element is principally used in transcriptions of ancillary texts such as the astrology guides.

Example
<head rend="center">A treatise touching the Defence of Astrology</head>
<hi>
<hi> (highlight) marks text that has been distinctively rendered in some way, e.g. underlined, overlined, italicised, or in larger text or a different colour. The nature of the formatting is indicated in @rend.
Attributesatt.written (@hand) att.global (xml:id, n, xml:lang, xml:base, xml:space, @style, @rendition) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@rend(rendition) values are "allCaps" (capitalised), "bold" (bold), "dropCap" (drop capital), "italic" (italic), "overline" (overlined), "smallCaps" (small capitals), "subscript" (subscripted), "superscript" (superscripted), "underline" (single underlined), "doubleUnderline" (double underlined). @rend can also be used to indicate changes in text size with "large", "larger", "largest" and "small", "smaller", "smallest". It can also be used to indicate a change of writing medium, with "redInk" used to indicate that a word or phrase is written in red ink, "redUnderline" to indicate that a text string is underlined in red but not itself written in red, or "differentInk" if the text string is written in a different ink (of unknown colour).
Derived fromatt.global.rendition
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • superscript
  • subscript
  • underline
  • doubleUnderline
  • overline
  • italic
  • bold
  • large
  • larger
  • largest
  • small
  • smaller
  • smallest
  • dropCap
  • smallCaps
  • allCaps
  • redInk
  • redUnderline
  • differentInk
Note

We do not attempt to record all the changes in size of Forman’s erratic handwriting, or the fact that he normally puts part at least of the subject’s name in much larger letters than the rest of the text. If such fluctuations do seem to be relevant to the interpretation of the text (e.g. deducing who is the subject in ambiguous cases), this can be mentioned in a comment tag. In practice, it is very rare for any values other than "superscript", "subscript", "overline" and "underline" to be needed in transcriptions of consultation records.

"redUnderline" is used to indicate that a text string not written in red has been underlined in red. However, if <hi rend="underline"> occurs within <hi rend="redInk">, both the text and underlining are presumed also to be in red if there is no indication to the contrary.

Example
… And the fault is in such fraudulent <hi rend="underline">fellowes</hi> fooles as them<lb/>selues, for they came with a lye, and they had an Answer <lb/>to a lye …
<history>
<history> groups elements describing the full history of a manuscript or manuscript part.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<history><origin><p>Written in Durham during the mid twelfth century.</p></origin><provenance><p>Recorded in two medieval catalogues of the books belonging to Durham Priory, made in 1391 and 1405.</p></provenance><provenance><p>Given to W. Olleyf by William Ebchester, Prior (1446-56) and later belonged to Henry Dalton, Prior of Holy Island (Lindisfarne) according to inscriptions on ff. 4v and 5.</p></provenance><acquisition><p>Presented to Trinity College in 1738 by Thomas Gale and his son Roger.</p></acquisition></history>
<idno>
<idno> (identifier) records the manuscript, and the page or folio within it, on which the entry appears.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
@typecategorizes the identifier, for example as an ISBN, Social Security number, etc.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
  • ISBN
  • ISSN
  • DOI
  • URI
  • VIAF
  • ESTC
  • OCLC
Note

In the vast majority of cases, this element and its content and attribute values are generated automatically before transcription begins. Its content only requires hand-crafting, as explained in the Guidelines, if an entry occupies more than one page or folio.

Example
<idno type="ISBN">978-1-906964-22-1</idno><idno type="ISSN">0143-3385</idno><idno type="DOI">10.1000/123</idno><idno type="URI">http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/185922478</idno><idno type="URI">http://authority.nzetc.org/463/</idno><idno type="LT">Thomason Tract E.537(17)</idno><idno type="Wing">C695</idno><idno type="oldCat"><g ref="#sym"/>345</idno>
In the last case, the identifier includes a non-Unicode character which is defined elsewhere by means of a <glyph> or <char> element referenced here as #sym.
<incipit>
<incipit> contains the incipit of a manuscript item, that is the opening words of the text proper, exclusive of any rubric which might precede it, of sufficient length to identify the work uniquely; such incipits were, in former times, frequently used a means of reference to a work, in place of a title.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.msExcerpt (@defective)
Example
<incipit>Pater noster qui es in celis</incipit><incipit defective="true">tatem dedit hominibus alleluia.</incipit><incipit type="biblical">Ghif ons huden onse dagelix broet</incipit><incipit>O ongehoerde gewerdighe christi</incipit><incipit type="lemma">Firmiter</incipit><incipit>Ideo dicit firmiter quia ordo fidei nostre probari non potest</incipit>
<item>
<item> contains an item within a <list>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

This element is used only rarely in Casebooks transcriptions, to encode items in formulaic lists, clearly set out as such in the original.

Example
<list> <head>parties suspected</head> <item>Thomas price</item> <item>frainces brodshowe</item> <item>Jeams vicars</item> <item>Robart fountain</item> <item>Jhon Laiton</item> <item>Richard Jobbar</item> <item>Wilm Norman&slash;</item> </list>
Example
<list> <item>1 Quærit utrum Amasia eum redamavit aut alterum</item> <item>2 utrum conjugium tibi fortunatum erit</item> <item>3 What Lands offices, freinds</item> </list>
<l>
<l> (verse line) contains a single, possibly incomplete, line of verse.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.fragmentable (@part)
Note

At the time of writing, this element has never been used in the transcription of entries in the casebooks, only in that of one of the guides to astrology, but it may come in handy should Napier ever take it into his head to write one of his questions in verse.

Example
<l met="x/x/x/x/x/" real="/xx/x/x/x/">Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?</l>
<lacunaEnd>
<lacunaEnd> indicates the end of a lacuna in a mostly complete textual witness.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.rdgPart (@wit)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<lacunaStart>
<lacunaStart> indicates the beginning of a lacuna in the text of a mostly complete textual witness.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.rdgPart (@wit)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<language>
<language> (language) specifies a language used within the document. Permitted @ident values: "el" (Greek), "en" (English), "fr" (French), "he" (Hebrew), "la" (Latin), "und" (undetermined).
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
@ident(identifier) Supplies a language code constructed as defined in BCP 47 which is used to identify the language documented by this element, and which is referenced by the global @xml:lang attribute.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.language
@usagespecifies the approximate percentage (by volume) of the text which uses this language.
Status Optional
Datatype nonNegativeInteger
Note

Every file will contain at least one <language> element except in the very rare case of entries that contain no text at all (and never did). Entries that have been deleted or damaged to such an extent that it is impossible to determine what language(s) they were in should be given the @ident value "und".

Example
<langUsage> <language ident="en">English</language> <language ident="la">Latin</language> </langUsage>
<langUsage>
<langUsage> (language usage) lists the language(s) used in a document, each in its own <language> element.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable
Example
<langUsage> <language ident="la">Latin</language> <language ident="en">English</language> <language ident="el">Greek</language> </langUsage>
<layout>
<layout> describes how text is laid out on the page, including information about any ruling, pricking, or other evidence of page-preparation techniques.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
@columnsspecifies the number of columns per page
Status Optional
Datatype 1–2 occurrences of teidata.count separated by whitespace
Note

If a single number is given, all pages referenced have this number of columns. If two numbers are given, the number of columns per page varies between the values supplied. Where @columns is omitted the number is assumed to be 1.

Columns may be independent of page orientation or reading direction, and a single textual @stream may have one or more columns.

@streams(textual streams) indicates the number of streams per page, each of which contains an independent textual stream
Status Optional
Datatype 1–2 occurrences of teidata.count separated by whitespace
Note

If a single number is given, all pages referenced have this number of textual streams. If two numbers are given, the number of textual streams. If two numbers are given, the number of textual streams per page varies beween the values supplied. Where @streams is omitted the number is assumed to be 1 and unless specified elsewhere the script orientation of the source is identical to that used in the TEI document.

@ruledLinesspecifies the number of ruled lines per column
Status Optional
Datatype 1–2 occurrences of teidata.count separated by whitespace
Note

If a single number is given, all columns have this number of ruled lines. If two numbers are given, the number of ruled lines per column varies between the values supplied.

@writtenLinesspecifies the number of written lines per column
Status Optional
Datatype 1–2 occurrences of teidata.count separated by whitespace
Note

If a single number is given, all columns have this number of written lines. If two numbers are given, the number of written lines per column varies between the values supplied.

Example
<layout columns="1" ruledLines="25 32"> Most pages have between 25 and 32 long lines ruled in lead.</layout>
Example
<layout columns="2" ruledLines="42"><p>2 columns of 42 lines ruled in ink, with central rule between the columns.</p></layout>
Example
<layout columns="1 2" writtenLines="40 50"><p>Some pages have 2 columns, with central rule between the columns; each column with between 40 and 50 lines of writing.</p></layout>
<layoutDesc>
<layoutDesc> (layout description) collects the set of layout descriptions applicable to a manuscript.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<layoutDesc><p>Most pages have between 25 and 32 long lines ruled in lead.</p></layoutDesc>
Example
<layoutDesc><layout columns="2" ruledLines="42"><p><locus from="f12r" to="f15v"/> 2 columns of 42 lines pricked and ruled in ink, with central rule between the columns.</p></layout><layout columns="3"><p><locus from="f16"/>Prickings for three columns are visible.</p></layout></layoutDesc>
<lb>
<lb> (line beginning) marks the beginning of a line of prose, including the first line of a paragraph. Although formally defined as ‘line break’, it is more usefully thought of as ‘line beginning’. If a word is hyphenated because it has been split by a line break, <lb> takes the @type value "hyphenated" and the hyphen itself should not be transcribed, unless it is a ‘hard’ hyphen that would have appeared anyway, as in
‘star-chart’
.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.edition (@edRef) att.spanning (@spanTo) att.breaking (@break)
Note

Where <lb> occurs between two words, one space should be left before it. Where it divides a single word or occurs at the beginning of a paragraph, there should be no space on either side of it.

Example
<p>M<hi rend="superscript">rs</hi> shawe of 50 yers <lb/>1596 the first of Aprille <lb/>Thursday An&flourish; m&flourish; 30 p 9 Diz</p>
Example
<p>of New<lb type="hyphenated"/>porte</p>
<lem>
<lem> (lemma) contains the lemma, or base text, of a textual variation.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.textCritical (@type, @cause, @varSeq, @require) (att.written (@hand)) att.witnessed (@wit)
Note

This element is not used in transcriptions of Casebooks entries, only in those of the more discursive guides to astrology or similar texts.

<lg>
<lg> (line group) contains one or more verse lines functioning as a formal unit, e.g. a stanza, refrain, verse paragraph, etc.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.divLike (@org, @sample) (att.fragmentable (@part)) att.typed (@type) att.declaring (@decls)
Note

At the time of writing, this element has never been used in the transcription of entries in the casebooks, only in that of one of the guides to astrology, but it may come in handy should Napier ever take it into his head to write one of his questions in verse.

Example
<lg> <l>The plannets vertue is proper and especiall.</l> <l>The vertue infused resulteth of them all.</l> <l>The first is like a workmans minde.</l> <l>The second like to his hand you shall finde</l> <l>The third is like a good instrument.</l> <l>The remnant like a thinge wrote to your intent.</l> </lg>
<list>
<list> contains any number of items organised as a list.
Attributesatt.sortable (@sortKey) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@rend(rendition) values are "bulleted" (list items have a bullet before them), "simple" (list items have nothing special before them), "ordered" (list items have an automatically generated number before them). @rend should ONLY be used in site pages. It should NEVER be used in transcriptions.
Derived fromatt.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • bulleted
  • simple
  • unstyled-list
  • no-margin-left
  • no-margin-bottom
  • shallow
  • tight
@typedescribes the nature of the items in the list.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
  • gloss
  • index
  • instructions
  • litany
  • syllogism
Note

Previous versions of these Guidelines recommended the use of @type on <list> to encode the rendering or appearance of a list (whether it was bulleted, numbered, etc.). The current recommendation is to use the @rend or @style attributes for these aspects of a list, while using @type for the more appropriate task of characterizing the nature of the content of a list.

Note

The formal syntax of the element declarations allows <label> tags to be omitted from lists tagged <list type="gloss">; this is however a semantic error.

Note

This element is used only rarely by the Casebooks Project, to encode formulaic lists, clearly set out as such in the original, whether of suspects, questions or anything else. It may, as in the first example given here, contain <head> as its first component, and it may nest in <p> if the list only consists of part of a paragraph.

Example
<list> <head>parties suspected</head> <item>Thomas price</item> <item>frainces brodshowe</item> <item>Jeams vicars</item> <item>Robart fountain</item> <item>Jhon Laiton</item> <item>Richard Jobbar</item> <item>Wilm Norman</item> </list>
Example
<list> <item>1 Quærit utrum Amasia eum redamavit aut alterum</item> <item>2 utrum conjugium tibi fortunatum erit</item> <item>3 What Lands offices, freinds</item> </list>
<listChange>
<listChange> groups a number of change descriptions associated with either the creation of a source text or the revision of an encoded text.
AttributesAttributes
@orderedindicates whether the ordering of its child <change> elements is to be considered significant or not
Status Required
Legal values are:
  • true
  • false
Note

When this element appears within the <creation> element it documents the set of revision campaigns or stages identified during the evolution of the original text. When it appears within the <revisionDesc> element, it documents only changes made during the evolution of the encoded representation of that text.

Example
<listChange ordered="true"> <change xml:id="stage1" when="1629-09-02"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> held the consultation and wrote out the entry.</change> <change xml:id="stage2"><name sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</name> added information about subsequent events.</change> <!--<change xml:id="stage1">Robert Wallis wrote the entry.</change> <change xml:id="stage2">Richard Napier added further judgment.</change> <change xml:id="stage3">Richard Napier supplied information about subsequent events.</change>--> </listChange>
<listEvent>
<listEvent> (list of events) contains a list of descriptions, each of which provides information about an identifiable event.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.declarableatt.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<listOrg>
<listOrg> (list of organizations) contains a list of elements, each of which provides information about an identifiable organization.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.declarableatt.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<listPerson>
<listPerson> (list of persons) contains a list of people (and, if appropriate, <org>s and/or <personGrp>s) featuring in a consultation, and the relations between them.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.declarableatt.sortable (@sortKey)
Example
<listPerson> <person xml:id="sforman"> <persName><forename>Simon</forename> <surname>Forman</surname></persName> <sex value="1">M</sex> </person> <person xml:id="c"> <persName><surname type="married">Clark</surname></persName> <sex value="2">F</sex> </person> <person xml:id="wc"> <persName><forename>William</forename> <surname>Clark</surname></persName> <sex value="1">M</sex> <age value="30">30</age> </person> <listRelation> <relation name="wife" active="#c" passive="#wc"/> </listRelation> </listPerson>
<listPlace>
<listPlace> (list of places) contains a list of places, optionally followed by a list of relationships (other than containment) defined amongst them.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.declarableatt.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Example
<listPlace type="offshoreIslands"><place><placeName>La roche qui pleure</placeName></place><place><placeName>Ile aux cerfs</placeName></place></listPlace>
<listRelation>
<listRelation> (relationship list) contains any number of <relation> elements describing interpersonal relationships recorded in the entry.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

Any <relation> elements should be nested in <listRelation>, even if there is only one recorded relationship in a given case.

Example
<listRelation> <relation name="servant" active="#ja" passive="#t"/> <relation name="sister" mutual="#ja #pa"/> </listRelation>
This records that the person with the @xml:id value "ja" is servant to the person with the @xml:id value "@t" and that the people with @xml:id values "ja" and "pa" are sisters.
<listWit>
<listWit> (witness list) lists definitions for all the witnesses referred to by a critical apparatus, optionally grouped hierarchically.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<locus>
<locus> defines the page or pages on which an entry appears.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.pointing (@target) att.typed (@type)
@fromspecifies the starting point of the location in a normalized form, typically a page number.
Status Required
Datatype string
@tospecifies the end-point of the location in a normalized form, typically as a page number.
Status Required
Datatype string
Note

The @from and @to values should always be four-digit integers, with however many leading zeros are needed to make up the four figures, followed immediately by r (recto) or v (verso) if the document is foliated rather than paginated (if it is paginated no suffix is needed). If, as is usually the case, the entry is on a single page, the @from and @to values will be identical. If the entry runs to more than one page in a logical sequence, e.g. from f. 59v to f. 60r or from f. 60r to f. 60v, the @from value will define the page it starts on and the @to value the page it ends on. If it runs to more than one page and is not in a logical sequence, e.g. it runs backwards or leapfrogs a page somewhere in the middle, it needs two or more <locus> elements, each defining one of the pages, listed in (what is presumed to be) the intended reading order.

If the <xml:id> and <n> values of the page (or one of the pages) in question has been given a suffix of A, B, etc. to allow for irregularities in the original foliation or pagination (see section III.4 b) ii) of the Header section of the Guidelines), the relevant @from and/or @to value(s) of <locus> take the same suffix.

This element is normally generated automatically before transcription begins. It only requires hand-crafting if the entry turns out to occupy more than one page.

Example
<locus from="0238r" to="0238r"/>
Example
<locus from="0059v" to="0060r"/>
Example
<locus from="0138v" to="0138v"/> <locus from="0137v" to="0137v"/>
<mapping>
<mapping> (character mapping) contains one or more characters which are related to the parent character or glyph in some respect, as specified by the @type attribute.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
Note

Suggested values for the @type attribute include exact for exact equivalences, uppercase for uppercase equivalences, lowercase for lowercase equivalences, and simplified for simplified characters. The <g> elements contained by this element can point to either another <char> or <glyph>element or contain a character that is intended to be the target of this mapping.

Example
<mapping type="modern">r</mapping><mapping type="standard">人</mapping>
<media>
<media> indicates the location of any form of external media such as an audio or video clip etc.
Attributesatt.typed (@type) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.resourced (@url) att.declaring (@decls) att.timed (@start, @end) att.media (@width, @height, @scale)
@mimeType(MIME media type) specifies the applicable multimedia internet mail extension (MIME) media type
Derived fromatt.internetMedia
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Note

This element is not used in Casebooks transcriptions, only in the code that generates the project’s homepage.

<milestone>
<milestone> demarcates a significant boundary within a given file. For Casebooks purposes, this can take two forms. In entries that have been transcribed in their entirety for whatever reason, it marks the beginning of a distinct section within the entry, with a @unit value of "angelInfo", "divinationInfo", "financialInfo", "judgment", "previousConsultationEventInfo", "question", "recipe", "subsequentEventInfo", "treatment" or "urineInfo" (corresponding to the suffixes of the elements ascribed to the relevant sections in the header). In all these cases it should link by means of the spanTo value to a corresponding <anchor> (q.v.) marking the end of the section in question. Alternatively, it can take the @unit value "book" in the extremely rare cases (at the time of writing this has only arisen once) where the component pages of an entry appear in separate volumes.
Attributesatt.milestoneUnit (@unit) att.typed (@type) att.edition (@edRef) att.spanning (@spanTo) att.breaking (@break) att.global (xml:id, n, @style, @rendition, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@xml:id(identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype ID
@n(number) gives a number (or other label) for an element, which is not necessarily unique within the document.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.text
Note

See the Guidelines for advice on how to apply this in the case of @unit taking the value book, in the unlikely event of this mechanism ever being needed again.

Fully-transcribed entries are normally in the remit of the senior editors, but there are occasional cases in which material extraneous to the question per se is inextricably bound up with the question section, e.g. Ashmole MS 217 f. 144v, uL, the question section of which reads (barring deletions) ‘The lady Elizabeth Myddleton of wales 45. y Iuly. 13. [Wednesday]. h. 11. 45 ant m gave me 20.s’. This is followed in the original by judgment and treatment sections which can be sampled out, but ‘gave me 20.s.’ cannot, as it is intrinsically part of the same paragraph and it would look very odd to omit it. However, it is indisputably financial information, and so should be demarcated by an opening <financialInfo> element linking to a concluding <anchor>.

Where a <milestone> or an <anchor> coincides with a paragraph break, it should be placed outside the <p> element (either before or after it or between two of them). However, it may occur more or less anywhere in the text section of the document if the shift occurs in mid-paragraph.

Example
<div> <p>… or wher she will com or noe & when et quid inde sequitur</p> </div> <milestone unit="book" n="MS 219 f. 68r bR" xml:id="MS_219-f68r" facs="#acn0159.jpg"/> &geoChartPreliminary; <milestone unit="book" n="MS 411 f. 54r uR" xml:id="MS_411-f54r" facs="#aex0131.jpg"/> &geoChart;
<msContents>
<msContents> (manuscript contents) contains, for Casebooks purposes, only the elements <msItem> and <title>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.msExcerpt (@defective) att.msClass (@class)
Note

This element and its content are generated automatically before transcription begins, though if an entry runs to more than one page the <locus> values will have to be revised by the transcriber.

Example
<msContents> <msItem> <locus from="0006r" to="0006r"/> <title sameAs="#main_title"/> </msItem> </msContents>
<msDesc>
<msDesc> defines the manuscript within which the entry occurs and the entry’s location within it.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.typed (@type) att.declaring (@decls) att.docStatus
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<msDesc> <msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="234">MS Ashmole 234, f. 13v</idno> &Forman001; </msIdentifier> <msContents> <msItem> <locus from="0013v" to="0013v"/> <title sameAs="#main_title"/> </msItem> </msContents> </msDesc>
<msFrag>
<msFrag> (manuscript fragment) contains information about a fragment of a scattered manuscript now held as a single unit or bound into a larger manuscript.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
Example
<msDesc> <msIdentifier> <msName xml:lang="la">Codex Suprasliensis</msName> </msIdentifier> <msFrag> <msIdentifier> <settlement>Ljubljana</settlement> <repository>Narodna in univerzitetna knjiznica</repository> <idno>MS Kopitar 2</idno> </msIdentifier> <msContents> <summary>Contains ff. 10 to 42 only</summary> </msContents> </msFrag> <msFrag> <msIdentifier> <settlement>Warszawa</settlement> <repository>Biblioteka Narodowa</repository> <idno>BO 3.201</idno> </msIdentifier> </msFrag> <msFrag> <msIdentifier> <settlement>Sankt-Peterburg</settlement> <repository>Rossiiskaia natsional'naia biblioteka</repository> <idno>Q.p.I.72</idno> </msIdentifier> </msFrag> </msDesc>
<msIdentifier>
<msIdentifier> (manuscript identifier) contains the information required to identify the manuscript being described.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="193">MS Ashmole 193, f. 51v</idno> </msIdentifier>
<msItem>
<msItem> (manuscript item) describes an individual work or item within the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.msExcerpt (@defective) att.msClass (@class)
Example
<msItem class="#saga"><locus>ff. 1r-24v</locus><title>Agrip af Noregs konunga sögum</title><incipit>regi oc h<ex>ann</ex> setiho <gap reason="illegible" extent="7"/>sc heim se<ex>m</ex> þio</incipit><explicit>h<ex>on</ex> hev<ex>er</ex><ex>oc</ex>þa buit hesta .ij. aNan viþ fé enh<ex>on</ex>o<ex>m</ex> aNan til reiþ<ex>ar</ex></explicit><textLang mainLang="non">Old Norse/Icelandic</textLang></msItem>
<name>
<name> (name) is used for editors’ names in the <TEIHeader>, or for names of participants in cases where it is unclear whether the name given is a forename or surname (or, indeed, role name, nickname or anything else).
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.typed (@type)
Note

If a <name> is unclear or partially illegible in the original, the legible or conjecturable parts should be included in the header with appropriate <unclear>, <supplied> and/or <gap> elements.

Example
<name type="person">Thomas Hoccleve</name><name type="place">Villingaholt</name><name type="org">Vetus Latina Institut</name><name type="person" ref="#HOC001">Occleve</name>
<note>
<note> (note) records either an editorial note in the header or an authorial annotation in the body text. Editorial notes nest in <notesStmt> and have a @resp value pointing to the editor responsible and any of the following @type values: "blank" (for notes explaining when entries are wholly or substantially deleted, or have been abandoned), "dating" (for notes about apparent anomalies in dating such as the use of the Gregorian calendar or of Old Style dates that treat the year as beginning on 25 March), "editorial" (general notes about points of interpretation and ambiguity and records of general editorial intervention) "externalEvidence" (for notes recording remarks and updates elsewhere in the casebooks that are relevant to the case in question and that have provided information for its header), "interest" (notes that record interesting aspects of the entry or highlight entries of particular interest), "layout" (notes that explain complex layouts or unusual positioning of entries), "physical" (notes about the physical manuscript, from records of damage to oddities about binding). Authorial notes do not need a @type value, just a @place value indicating their placement. Values are "infralinear", "inline", "interlinear", "lineBeginning", "lineEnd", marginLeft", "marginRight", "pageTop", "pageBottom", or "chart" (for notes added inside an astrological chart).
Attributesatt.placement (@place) att.pointing (@target) att.typed (@type) att.written (@hand) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
Note

"marginLeft" and "marginRight" should be seen as relative to the point they relate to: for instance, notes that actually occur in the middle of the page as a whole should be considered "marginRight" if they pertain to a point in the left column or "marginLeft" if they pertain to a point in the right column

Example
<notesStmt><note type="layout" resp="#jyoung">This entry is upside down.</note></notesStmt>
Example
<notesStmt><note type="editorial" resp="#rralley">It is not clear what role Mr Burton plays in this entry.</note></notesStmt>
Example
<p>Sara Musgrave <lb/>of Bletchsoe 23 <lb/>y march: 11. Tuesday <lb/>h. 12. 1606.<note place="chart">troubled in <lb/>mynde.</note></p>
Example
<p>… Apr. 15. Tuesday h. 6. 20 <lb/>p m. 1606.<note place="pageTop">M<hi rend="superscript">r</hi> Burton</note></p>
<notesStmt>
<notesStmt> (notes statement) functions as a container for one or more editorial notes on the document.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<notesStmt><note type="layout" resp="#jyoung">This entry appears between the question and the chart for <ref target="CASE6333" type="case">CASE6333</ref>.</note></notesStmt>
<num>
<num> (number) contains a number, written in any form.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)
@typeindicates the type of numeric value.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
  • cardinal
  • ordinal
  • fraction
  • percentage
Note

If a different typology is desired, other values can be used for this attribute.

@valuesupplies the value of the number in standard form.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.numeric
Values a numeric value.
Note

The standard form used is defined by the TEI datatype data.numeric.

Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<objectDesc>
<objectDesc> contains a description of the physical components making up the object which is being described.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
@forma short project-specific name identifying the physical form of the carrier, for example as a codex, roll, fragment, partial leaf, cutting etc.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Note

Definitions for the terms used may typically be provided by a <valList> element in the project schema specification.

Example
<objectDesc form="codex"><supportDesc material="mixed"><p>Early modern <material>parchment</material> and <material>paper</material>.</p></supportDesc><layoutDesc><layout ruledLines="25 32"/></layoutDesc></objectDesc>
<occupation>
<occupation> (occupation) describes a person’s occupation, using any of the terms recorded in the our occupations master list (occupations.xml) and beginning with a capital letter.
Attributesatt.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • primary
  • other
  • paid
  • unpaid
@schemeindicates the classification system or taxonomy in use, for example by supplying the identifier of a <taxonomy> element, or pointing to some other resource.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
@codeidentifies an occupation code defined within the classification system or taxonomy defined by the @scheme attribute.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Note

Where not explicitly stated, occupations may be inferred from evidence in either the transcribed or the untranscribed part of the entry. For instance, a statement such as ‘her master beateth her’ strongly suggests that the beaten person in question is a servant of some description. In such cases, <occupation> takes an @evidence value of "inferred" and, if there is any doubt about the inference, a @cert value of "high|medium|low".

If a person’s occupation is recorded only in the untranscribed part of the document, <occupation> takes an @evidence value of "internal".

Example
<occupation>Shepherd</occupation>
Example
<occupation>Ratcatcher</occupation>
<opener>
<opener> groups together dateline, byline, salutation, and similar phrases appearing as a preliminary group at the start of a division, especially of a letter.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<org>
<org> (organisation) should be used where any of the parties to a consultation is not an individual person but a definable organisation, e.g. ‘the docters’ (in Forman’s case usually meaning the London College of Physicians) or ‘the Unversity of Oxford’. Each <org> takes a mandatory 3-letter @xml:id value, and as content the element <orgName>, containing a modernised version of the original description (with an initial capital).
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.editLike (@evidence) att.sortable (@sortKey)
@rolespecifies a primary role or classification for the organization.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Note

Values for this attribute may be locally defined by a project, using arbitrary keywords such as artist, employer, family group, or political party, each of which should be associated with a definition. Such local definitions will typically be provided by a <valList> element in the project schema specification.

Note

Any ship named in an entry should be defined as an <org>, with its spelling normalised and given initial capitals in its <orgName>.

Example
<org xml:id="drs"><orgName>The doctors</orgName></org>
Example
<org xml:id="eag" type="ship"><orgName>The Eagle</orgName></org>
<orgName>
<orgName> (organisation name) records the name of anything defined as an <org>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.typed (@type)
Example
<org xml:id="tcc"> <orgName>Trinity College, Cambridge</orgName> </org>
<orig>
<orig> (original form) contains the original form of a text string or symbol for which a regularised version has been provided, and nests together with <reg> (containing the regularised version) in a <choice> element.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

<orig> always precedes <reg> within <choice>.

Example
<p>Dec<choice><orig><hi rend="overline">e</hi></orig><reg>em</reg></choice>b<choice><orig><hi rend="superscript">r</hi></orig><reg>er</reg></choice></p>
<origDate>
<origDate> (origin date) contains any form of date, used to identify the date of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.typed (@type)
Example
<origDate notBefore="-0300" notAfter="-0200">3rd century BCE</origDate>
<origin>
<origin> contains any descriptive or other information concerning the origin of a manuscript or manuscript part.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Example
<origin notBefore="1802" notAfter="1845" evidence="internal" resp="#AMH"> Copied in <name type="origPlace">Derby</name>, probably from an old Flemish original, between 1802 and 1845, according to <persName xml:id="AMH">Anne-Mette Hansen</persName>. </origin>
<origPlace>
<origPlace> (origin place) contains any form of place name, used to identify the place of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.typed (@type)
Note

The @type attribute may be used to distinguish different kinds of origin, for example original place of publication, as opposed to original place of printing.

Example
<origPlace>Birmingham</origPlace>
<p>
<p> (paragraph) contains <time> or <date> in the header (each in a separate <p> if both are present), or marks paragraphs in prose. No attributes are normally needed but @rend (rendition) is available, with the values "right" (right-aligned), "left" (left-aligned), "center" (centred), or "indent0", "indent5", "indent10", "indent15" etc., up to "indent40", to indicate the approximate number of spaces by which the first line of a paragraph is indented if the indentation is deemed to be at least potentially significant.
Attributesatt.declaring (@decls) att.fragmentable (@part) att.written (@hand) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@rend(rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived fromatt.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Sample values include:
  • right
  • left
  • center
  • indent0
  • indent5
  • indent10
  • indent15
  • indent20
  • indent25
  • indent30
  • indent35
  • indent40
Example
<p><lb/>Thomas Lavorok <lb/>of 60 yers 1598 2 may <lb/>Tuesday An m 30 p 9 Diz</p>
<particDesc>
<particDesc> (participant description) contains documentation for all the people involved in the case.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable
Note

‘Participant’ is here defined very broadly, meaning the practitioner(s), the scribe(s) (if relevant), and anyone mentioned in the transcribed portion of the entry, even if they do not, strictly speaking, participate in it.

People mentioned in the untranscribed portion of the entry may also, at the editor’s discretion, be listed here if they seem relevant to the understanding of the case, for instance suspected witches or people accused of having harmed the subject in some way, with an @evidence value of @internal on their <person> elements. People mentioned merely in passing in the untranscribed section (e.g. ‘shee was in love but her father was against it’ where the subject’s love life does not appear to be the topic at issue) can be passed over in silence.

Example
<particDesc> <listPerson> <person xml:id="rnapier"> <persName><forename>Richard</forename> <surname>Napier</surname></persName> <sex value="1">M</sex> </person> <person xml:id="jh"> <persName><forename>Joan</forename> <surname>Hatch</surname></persName> <sex value="2">F</sex> <age value="53">53</age> <residence sameAs="#address1" key="databaseNormalizedIDKey"/> </person> </listPerson> </particDesc>
<pb>
<pb> (page beginning) marks the beginning of a new page in the document, and takes @xml:id and @n values as explained in the Guidelines.
Attributesatt.typed (@type) att.edition (@edRef) att.spanning (@spanTo) att.breaking (@break) att.global (xml:id, n, @style, @rendition, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@xml:id(identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype string
@n(number) gives a number (or other label) for an element, which is not necessarily unique within the document.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype string
Note

As with <cb>, if the page break occurs outside the transcribed portion of the text (for instance, if the question and chart are on f. 146r but the judgment on f. 146v), <pb> should be placed outside <div>. If, however, as in the example given here, the page break occurs within the transcribed portion, it should nest in <div>.

In the extremely rare event of text moving on to the same page more than once within a given file, the two @xml:id values should be distinguished by appending a hyphen and a numeral to the normal value, e.g. f46r-1, f46r-2, but the two @n values will be identical.

Where canonical images are available, <pb> also takes a @facs value pointing to the URL for the image of the page in question. This is generated automatically and editors need not concern themselves with it.

Example
<div> <p><lb/>An dayrell 19 y troubled with the greene sicknes shortwinded greeped about the hart &amp; stuffed.</p> </div> <div> <pb xml:id="f16r" n="16r"/> <p><lb/>Mrs Derrell craveth further my Counsell …</p> </div>
In this example (the end of CASE10178), there is a treatment note (‘for twice 6d’, i.e. a sixpence weight of tablets representing two doses) and a scrap of judgment (‘very pale &amp; ill coloured’) at the bottom of f. 15v so the entry cannot be treated as a single <div> but the <pb> needs to nest in the second <div> as more transcribed text follows it.
<persName>
<persName> (personal name) contains as many as appropriate of the component parts of a person’s name, i.e. <roleName>, <forename>, <surname>, <genName>, <nameLink>, <name>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) )
@typeapplies only in the (extremely rare) cases of Decknamen (entirely false names either given by a querent or used by a practitioner to conceal the person's identity): this takes the value "deckname".
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • deckname
Note

If some or all of a person's name is not explicitly stated, or is given in code, or is drastically abbreviated, but can be deduced from external evidence, <persName>, <forename> and <surname> (but not, for some reason, <name> or <genName>) can all take an @evidence value of "external" and, if there is any doubt about the identification, a @cert value of "high|medium|low". If all or part of the name is given only in one of the untranscribed sections of the entry in question, @evidence takes the value "internal".

The proper nouns in <persName> should be given in regularised forms as established in the pilot project or subsequently.

Where any part of <persName> is unclear or partially illegible in the original, the legible or conjecturable parts should be included in the header with appropriate <unclear>, <supplied> and/or <gap> elements.

Example
<persName><roleName>Mr</roleName> <forename>John</forename> <surname>Perkins</surname></persName>
Example
<persName><roleName>Lady</roleName> <surname>Throckmorton</surname></persName>
<person>
<person> contains biographical data about a person, such as name, age, sex, residence, occupation.
Attributesatt.sortable (@sortKey) att.global (style, rendition, xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.linking (corresp, synch, copyOf, next, prev, @sameAs, @exclude) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@xml:id(identifier) provides a code (in lower case letters), normally generated from the initial(s) of the person in question, by which he or she may be referred to in other markup.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Optional
Datatype ID
@evidenceexplains the grounds for inferring or conjecturing the person’s existence where he or she is not explicitly mentioned in the transcribed text. Permitted values: "internal" (evidence from the untranscribed part of the entry), "external" (evidence from a source external to the entry, including elsewhere in the casebooks), "conjecture".
Derived fromatt.editLike
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • internal
  • external
  • inferred
  • conjecture
Example
<person xml:id="af"> <persName><forename>Anne</forename> <surname>Foot</surname></persName> <sex value="2">F</sex> <age value="60">60</age> <residence sameAs="#address1" key="databaseNormalizedIDKey"/> </person>
<persona>
<persona> provides information about one of the personalities identified for a given individual, where an individual has multiple personalities.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.sortable (@sortKey)
@rolespecifies a primary role or classification for the persona.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Note

Values for this attribute may be locally defined by a project, using arbitrary keywords such as artist, employer, author, relative, or servant, each of which should be associated with a definition. Such local definitions will typically be provided by a <valList> element in the project schema specification.

@sexspecifies the sex of the persona.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.sex separated by whitespace
Note

Values for this attribute may be locally defined by a project, or may refer to an external standard, such as vCard's sex property (in which M indicates male, F female, O other, N none or not applicable, U unknown), or the often used ISO 5218:2004 Representation of Human Sexes (in which 0 indicates unknown; 1 male; 2 female; and 9 not applicable, although the ISO standard is widely considered inadequate); cf. CETH's Recommendations for Inclusive Data Collection of Trans People .

@agespecifies an age group for the persona.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Note

Values for this attribute may be locally defined by a project, using arbitrary keywords such as infant, child, teen, adult, or senior, each of which should be associated with a definition. Such local definitions will typically be provided by a <valList> element in the project schema specification.

Note

Note that a persona is not the same as a role. A role may be assumed by different people on different occasions, whereas a persona is unique to a particular person, even though it may resemble others. Similarly, when an actor takes on or enacts the role of a historical person, they do not thereby acquire a new persona.

Example
<person sex="M" age="adult"><persona sex="M"><persName>Dr Henry Jekyll</persName></persona><persona sex="M" age="youth"><persName>Edward Hyde</persName></persona></person>
<personGrp>
<personGrp> (personal group) is used where the ‘person’ in question is not an individual but a group of unnamed people not definable as an <org>. This takes a 3-letter xml:id value in the same way as <org> but does not include a <persName>. Instead, such groups are defined in terms of occupation, sex and/or relation(s) to any other particpants.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey)
@evidenceexplains the grounds for inferring or conjecturing the <personGrp>’s existence where it is not explicitly mentioned in the transcribed text. Permitted values: "internal" (evidence from the untranscribed part of the entry), "external" (evidence from a source external to the entry, including elsewhere in the casebooks), "conjecture".
Derived fromatt.casebooks.minimal.certainty
Status Optional
Legal values are:
  • internal
  • external
  • inferred
  • conjecture
Note

Note that the content of <occupation> is always given in the singular, even when referring to an occupation shared by a number of people.

<sex> takes a @value value of "1" if all members of the group are known to be male, "2" if all members are known to be female, or "0" if their genders are not known. In the unlikely event that such a group is known to include both female and male members, it may be necessary to divide it into two groups, one female and the other male, but in practice it is extremely unusual for a <personGrp> to be defined in that much detail in the source.

Example
<personGrp xml:id="tbf"> <sex value="0">U</sex> </personGrp>
for ‘Thomas Bricknell’s friends’, where <listRelation> includes
<relation name="friend" mutual="#tb #tbf"/>
.
Example
<personGrp xml:id="ser"> <sex value="0">U</sex> <occupation>Servant</occupation> </personGrp>
for ‘the servants’, where it is not known whose servants they are (if this is known, obviously it should be stated in a <relation> element).
<physDesc>
<physDesc> (physical description) contains a full physical description of a manuscript or manuscript part, optionally subdivided using more specialized elements from the model.physDescPart class.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<physDesc> <objectDesc form="codex"> <supportDesc material="perg"> <support>Parchment.</support> <extent>i + 55 leaves <dimensions scope="all" type="leaf" unit="inch"><height>7¼</height><width>5⅜</width></dimensions> </extent> </supportDesc> <layoutDesc> <layout columns="2">In double columns.</layout> </layoutDesc> </objectDesc> <handDesc> <p>Written in more than one hand.</p> </handDesc> <decoDesc> <p>With a few coloured capitals.</p> </decoDesc> </physDesc>
<place>
<place> contains data about a geographic location
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.editLike (@evidence) att.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<placeName>
<placeName> (place name) is used in the body text to mark up any specified location not representing the address of one or more of the participants. Where such place names need to be linked to from the header (for instance because they record places of birth, marriage or death), <placeName> takes an @xml:id value of "place1" (or "place2", "place3" etc. if more than one occurs in a given file). No attribute is needed for place names not linked to from the header.
Attributesatt.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.typed (@type)
Note

If (as is usually the case) a specified location does represent someone’s address, it should be marked up as <rs> with a @type value of "address" rather than as <placeName>.

As in the case of the innkeeper of the White Horse cited above, the distinction is particularly problematic when it comes to clerics attached to particular locations: ‘Mr Watson parson of bow brickle’ (CASE12648), for instance, does not necessarily live in Bow Brickhill, but had he been referred to as ‘Mr Watson of bowbrickle, parson’ it would be reasonable to suppose he does.

Example
<placeName>my bedroome</placeName>
Example
<placeName>Fraunce</placeName>
Example
… Inkeeper of <placeName>the white horse</placeName> …
In this example, the innkeeper of the White Horse may well live in the White Horse but cannot be assumed to do so without further evidence, so it is tagged as a <placeName> rather than an <rs type="address">.
Example
… borne in <placeName xml:id="place1">London</placeName> …
Here, the <placeName> will be linked to from the <birth> element in the relevant person’s entry in the header, so it needs an @xml:id value.
<postscript>
<postscript> contains a postscript, e.g. to a letter.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<profileDesc>
<profileDesc> (profile description) describes the contents of the file and of its source.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element (but not its content) is generated automatically before transcripion begins.

Example
<profileDesc> <handNotes> <handNote sameAs="#rnapier">Richard Napier</handNote> </handNotes> <langUsage> <language ident="en">English</language> </langUsage> <textClass xml:base="../05-master-lists/consultation-types.xml"> <catRef target="#horary"/> </textClass> <particDesc> <listPerson> <person xml:id="rnapier"> <persName><forename>Richard</forename> <surname>Napier</surname></persName> <sex value="1">M</sex> </person> <person xml:id="as"> <persName><forename>Arthur</forename> <surname>Smith</surname></persName> <sex value="1">M</sex> <age value="37">37</age> <residence sameAs="#address1" key="databaseNormalizedIDKey"/> </person> </listPerson> </particDesc> <settingDesc> <p><date when="1600-02-26" n="Tuesday"/></p> <p><time when="12:30:00"/></p> <cb:consultation> <cb:consultant ref="#rnapier"/> <cb:practice name="napier"/> <cb:querent ref="#as"/> <cb:subject ref="#as" present="unclear"/> <cb:topic key="eyesight"><person sameAs="#as"/></cb:topic> <cb:judgment/> <cb:treatment/> <cb:info type="financial"/> </cb:consultation> </settingDesc> </profileDesc>
<publicationStmt>
<publicationStmt> (publication statement) gives details about the release of the electronic document.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins, and the details of the <date> element modified automatically when the file is released.

Example
<publicationStmt> <publisher>The Casebooks Project</publisher> <pubPlace>Cambridge</pubPlace> <date when="2014-06-09">09 June 2014</date> </publicationStmt>
<publisher>
<publisher> gives the name of the organisation responsible for publishing the file. For Casebooks Project purposes, this is invariably ‘The Casebooks Project’.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<publicationStmt> <publisher>The Casebooks Project</publisher> <pubPlace>Cambridge</pubPlace> <date when="2010-07-05">05 July 2010</date> </publicationStmt>
<pubPlace>
<pubPlace> (publication place) gives the place of publication. For Casebooks purposes, this is invariably ‘Cambridge’.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<publicationStmt> <publisher>The Casebooks Project</publisher> <pubPlace>Cambridge</pubPlace> <date when="2010-07-05">05 July 2010</date> </publicationStmt>
<q>
<q> (quoted) contains material which is distinguished from the surrounding text using quotation marks or a similar method, for any one of a variety of reasons including, but not limited to: direct speech or thought, technical terms or jargon, authorial distance, quotations from elsewhere, and passages that are mentioned but not used.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.ascribed (@who)
@typemay be used to indicate whether the offset passage is spoken or thought, or to characterize it more finely.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
  • spoken
  • thought
  • written
  • soCalled
  • foreign
  • distinct
  • term
  • emph
  • mentioned
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<quote>
<quote> (quotation) contains a phrase or passage attributed by the narrator or author to some agency external to the text.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.msExcerpt (@defective) att.notated (@notation)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<rdg>
<rdg> (reading) contains a single reading within a textual variation.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.witnessed (@wit) att.textCritical (type, @cause, @varSeq, @require) att.written (@hand)
@typeindicates the nature of the variant reading's difference from the lemma. Permitted values: "caps" (the variant differs only from the lemma in its capitalisation), "orthographic" (the variant reading differs from the lemma in its spelling, use of brevigraphs or abbreviations, or word-division), "punctuation" (the variant reading differs from the lemma in its punctuation), "substantive" (the variant reading uses different words from the lemma), "hi" (the variant reading differs from the lemma only in the text's highlighting), "hicaps" (the variant reading differs from the lemma in its capitalisation and in highlighting applied to the text), "hiorth" (the variant reading differs from the lemma in its spellings, use of brevigraphs or abbreviations, or word-division, and in highlighting applied to the text), "hipunc" (the variant reading differs from the lemma in its capitalisation and in highlighting applied to the text), and "hisubs" (the variant reading uses different words from the lemma, and also differs in highlighting applied to the text).
Derived fromatt.textCritical
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • caps
  • orthographic
  • punctuation
  • substantive
  • hi
  • hicaps
  • hiorth
  • hipunc
  • hisubs
Note

This element is not used in transcriptions of Casebooks entries, only in those of the more discursive guides to astrology or similar texts.

A variant reading marked as substantive may include differences in punctuation, spelling and capitalisation; likewise, a variant reading marked as orthographic may include differences in capitalisation.

<ref>
<ref> (reference) supplies a link to another online location.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.internetMedia (@mimeType) att.declaring (@decls) att.cReferencing (@cRef)
@targetspecifies the destination of the reference by supplying one or more URI References
Derived fromatt.pointing
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
@typevalues are "case" (points to case file), "letter" (points to letter file), "note" (points to note file), "person" (points to identified entity - i.e. person, org, personGrp), "text" (points to text file) and "protected" (points to resource behind a paywall).
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • case
  • letter
  • note
  • person
  • text
  • protected
Note

This element is only used in Casebooks Project transcriptions within <notesStmt>, where it provides a link to another Casebooks entry referred to in the <note>. It takes a @type value of "case" and a @target value of (for instance) "CASE10018". If the case to be linked to has not yet been released at the time of transcription, and hence has no CASE number, a placeholder value of the relevant file's working title, minus the invariable prefix MS_Ashmole_ (e.g. ‘201-f0057v-1’ for the first entry on f. 57v of MS Ashmole 201) should be entered instead, as both the content and the @target value of <ref>. These will be automatically converted to the relevant CASE number when one has been assigned, so NB especial care should be taken to ensure that precisely the correct working title is used, as the slightest typographical error will lead to the link either pointing to the wrong entry or not pointing to anything at all.

The element also occurs in many of the files used to generate the website pages, in which case it may require the @type value "protected" if it links to an external resource subject to restricted access, but transcribers need not concern themselves with this.

<reg>
<reg> (regularisation) contains the regularised form of a text string (as it will appear in the ‘normalised’ view of the transcription), or a gloss (which will be displayed in a mouseover). <reg> follows <orig>, which contains the original text string, within a <choice> element and does not need any attributes unless it functions as a gloss.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence)
@typeexplains, in the event of there being any possible confusion, whether the content of <reg> is a "normalisation" or a "gloss". If no attribute is invoked, it is by default taken as a normalisation.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • gloss
  • normalisation
Note

A given text string may have both a normalisation and a gloss, as in the second example above.

Example
<p>Sept<choice><orig><hi rend="overline">e</hi></orig><reg>em</reg></choice>ber</p>
Example
<p>the 18 of march <lb/><choice><orig>an&flourish; m&flourish;</orig><reg>am</reg></choice> 45 <choice><orig>p.</orig><reg>post</reg><reg type="gloss">past</reg></choice> 7</p>
<region>
<region> contains the name of an administrative unit such as a state, province, or county, larger than a settlement, but smaller than a country.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Example
<placeName><region type="state" n="IL">Illinois</region></placeName>
<relation>
<relation> (relationship) describes a relationship of any sort between participants where this is recorded in the source (including, if appropriate, untranscribed portions of the source).
Attributesatt.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.canonical (@key, @ref) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@cert(certainty) states the level of certainty about such editorial interpretations, on a scale of high|medium|low.
Derived fromatt.global.responsibility
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.probCert
@evidenceexplains the grounds on which an editorial interpretation of the nature of a relationship has been arrived at, using the values internal, external, inferred or conjecture.
Derived fromatt.editLike
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • internal
  • external
  • inferred
  • conjecture
@typetakes the value editorial if the relationship in question is not explicitly stated in the source but has been deduced by the editor. (This is a fairly rare occurrence, but there are cases where the interpretation of a given entry hinges on such deductions, for instance whether two participants are master and servant, romantic partners, or both those things at once.)
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
@activepoints to the person(s), <personGrp>(s) or <org>(s) who has/have this relationship to another person or other people, or <org>(s).
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
@mutualpoints to two or more people and/or groups of people who have the same relationship to one another, e.g. brother or friend.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
@namedefines the nature of the relationship, using any of the terms recorded in the @name, which are defined in our master relation list (relations.xml).
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • acquaintance
  • administrativeSubordinate
  • administrativeSuperior
  • adversary
  • agent
  • alchemist
  • ale-brewer
  • almsgiver
  • almsman
  • almswoman
  • almswoman_almsman
  • apothecary
  • apprentice
  • attorney
  • aunt
  • aunt/uncle
  • austringer
  • bailiff
  • baker
  • barber
  • beloved
  • bereavedSpouse
  • betrothed
  • bishopSuperior
  • boarder
  • brewer
  • brother
  • brother-in-law
  • bursar
  • butcher
  • butler
  • carer
  • carrier
  • carter
  • caterer
  • chamberlain
  • chambermaid
  • chaplainPastoral
  • chaplainRank
  • chapman
  • charge
  • cheeseMan
  • cheeseWoman
  • cheeseWoman_cheeseMman
  • child
  • childSoCalled
  • chimney-sweeper
  • clerk
  • clerkOfTheKitchen
  • clientFeePaying
  • clientPatronal
  • coachman
  • coalCarrier
  • colleague
  • college
  • collegeButler
  • collegeEmployee
  • collegeEmployer
  • collegeFellow
  • collegeHead
  • collegeMember
  • collegeServant
  • collegeStudent
  • collegeVice-president
  • commissarySubordinate
  • cook
  • cookmaid
  • cooper
  • corporation
  • counsellor
  • countryman
  • countrywoman
  • countrywoman/countryman
  • cowherd
  • creditor
  • crew
  • curatePastoral
  • curateRank
  • curateSubordinate
  • customer
  • dairymaid
  • daughter
  • daughter-in-law
  • daughter-in-law/son-in-law
  • daughterSoCalled
  • debtor
  • distiller
  • doctor
  • draper
  • driver
  • dryNurse
  • ecclesiasticalSubordinate
  • ecclesiasticalSuperior
  • employee
  • employeeSubordinate
  • employeeSuperior
  • employer
  • falconer
  • father
  • father-in-law
  • fatherSoCalled
  • firstCousin
  • fisher
  • fisherman
  • fisherwoman
  • footboy
  • footman
  • fowler
  • friend
  • gardener
  • glazier
  • godchild
  • goddaughter
  • godfather
  • godmother
  • godparent
  • godson
  • governessEducator
  • governessEmployee
  • grandchild
  • granddaughter
  • grandfather
  • grandmother
  • grandparent
  • grandson
  • groom
  • guardian
  • guest
  • half-brother
  • half-sibling
  • half-sister
  • headCook
  • headOfHousehold
  • horsekeeper
  • horseman
  • host
  • householdBrewer
  • householdMember
  • housekeeper
  • huntsman
  • husband
  • husbandman
  • joiner
  • journeyman
  • keeper
  • keeperSuperior
  • kinsman
  • kinswoman
  • kinswoman_kinsman
  • kitchenBoy
  • landlady
  • landlord
  • lateHusband
  • lateSpouse
  • lateWife
  • launderer
  • laundry-maid
  • licensee
  • licensor
  • loader
  • maltster
  • marshal
  • mason
  • master
  • medicalPractitioner
  • member
  • messenger
  • midwife
  • militaryCaptain
  • militarySubordinate
  • militarySuperior
  • miller
  • minister
  • mistress
  • mistress/master
  • molekeeper
  • mother
  • mother-in-law
  • mother-in-law/father-in-law
  • motherSoCalled
  • needlewoman
  • neighbour
  • nephew
  • nextDoorNeighbour
  • niece
  • niece/nephew
  • nurse
  • nursemaid
  • officer
  • ostler
  • owner
  • page
  • pantler
  • parent
  • parentSoCalled
  • parishioner
  • pastoral charge
  • pasture-man
  • patient
  • patron
  • pensioner
  • pewterer
  • physician
  • ploughboy
  • ploughman
  • porter
  • postmaster
  • priest
  • proctor
  • pupil
  • purse-bearer
  • purser
  • receiverGeneral
  • rectorPastoral
  • rectorRank
  • registrar
  • representative
  • retainer
  • romanticPartner
  • saddler
  • schoolmasterEducator
  • schoolmasterEmployee
  • scullion
  • secretary
  • sergeantOfBuckhounds
  • servant
  • servantSubordinate
  • servantSuperior
  • serviceProvider
  • shepherd
  • sheriffSuperior
  • ship
  • shipCaptain
  • shipmaster
  • shipsPurser
  • sibling
  • silkman
  • sister
  • sister-in-law
  • sister-in-law/brother-in-law
  • solicitor
  • son
  • son-in-law
  • sonSoCalled
  • spouse
  • stepchild
  • stepdaughter
  • stepfather
  • stepmother
  • stepparent
  • stepson
  • steward
  • subwarden
  • surgeon
  • swineherd
  • tailor
  • tapster
  • tasker
  • tenant
  • tithing-man
  • tutee
  • tutor
  • twin
  • uncle
  • under-butler
  • under-keeperSubordinate
  • under-sheriffSubordinate
  • underCook
  • university
  • universityMember
  • usher
  • vicarPastoral
  • vicarRank
  • waggoner
  • wainman
  • ward
  • wardrobeKeeper
  • warrener
  • widow
  • widower
  • wife
  • woodman
  • woodward
  • workman
  • workwoman
  • workwoman_workman
  • wouldBeSweetheart
  • yeoman
@passivepoints to the person(s), <personGrp>(s) or <org>(s) to whom this relationship is had.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
Note

Only one of the attributes @active or @mutual may be supplied on a given <relation> element; if the attribute @active is supplied, the attribute @passive must be supplied too.

Example
<listRelation> <relation name="servant" active="#ja" passive="#t"/> <relation name="sister" mutual="#ja #pa"/> </listRelation>
This records that the person with the @xml:id value "ja" is servant to the person with @xml:id value "t" and that the people with the @xml:id values "ja" and "pa" are sisters.
<repository>
<repository> contains the name of the repository within which the original document is housed. For Casebooks Project purposes, this is invariably ‘Bodleian Library’.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Example
<msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="234">MS Ashmole 234, f. 1r</idno> &Forman001; </msIdentifier>
<residence>
<residence> (residence) points where possible, by means of a @sameAs value, to an <rs> element in the transcribed text marking up a participant’s address. If an address is given in an untranscribed portion of the entry, <residence> takes no @sameAs value and contains a literal transcription of the address as given in the source.
Attributesatt.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (synch, next, prev, @corresp, @sameAs, @copyOf, @exclude) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source) att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to) att.datable.custom (datingPoint, datingMethod, @when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) att.canonical (key, @ref)
@key(key) always takes, provisionally, the value "databaseNormalizedIDKey". These values will all, in due course, be transformed into references to the relevant item in a master list of all the addresses recorded in the casebooks.
Derived fromatt.canonical
Status Required
Datatype teidata.text
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • primary
  • secondary
  • temporary
  • permanent
Note

Where a former address is mentioned in an entry, this should be marked up in the same way but with <residence> taking a @notAfter ISO value of the last plausible date at which it might have been a current residence (the day before the consultation if no other evidence is available) or a @to value of the date on which it ceased to be one if this can be ascertained.

Example
<residence sameAs="#address1" key="databaseNormalizedIDKey"/>
Example
<residence key="databaseNormalizedIDKey">of yardly Gubion</residence>
<resp>
<resp> (responsibility) contains a phrase describing the nature of a person's intellectual responsibility, or an organization's role in the production or distribution of a work.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Note

The attribute @ref, inherited from the class att.canonical may be used to indicate the kind of responsibility in a normalized form by referring directly to a standardized list of responsibility types, such as that maintained by a naming authority, for example the list maintained at for bibliographic usage.

Example
<respStmt><resp ref="http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/com.html">compiler</resp><name>Edward Child</name></respStmt>
<respStmt>
<respStmt> (statement of responsibility) supplies a statement of responsibility for the intellectual content of a text, edition, recording, or series, where the specialized elements for authors, editors, etc. do not suffice or do not apply. May also be used to encode information about individuals or organizations which have played a role in the production or distribution of a bibliographic work.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Example
<respStmt><resp>transcribed from original ms</resp><persName>Claus Huitfeldt</persName></respStmt>
Example
<respStmt><resp>converted to XML encoding</resp><name>Alan Morrison</name></respStmt>
<revisionDesc>
<revisionDesc> records the work done on the electronic file, with dates and the identities of the editors who have done the work.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.docStatus
Note

The changes recorded within this element should be listed in chronological order.

Example
<revisionDesc> <change when="2009-12-12">Data entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet by <name xml:id="rralley">Robert Ralley</name> as part of the Casebooks Pilot Project.</change> <change when="2010-07-05">XML file created by <name xml:id="mhawkins">Michael Hawkins</name> from Casebooks Pilot Project data.</change> <change when="2011-04-22">Transcribed by <name xml:id="jyoung">John Young</name>.</change> <change when="2011-04-28">Checked by <name sameAs="#rralley">Robert Ralley</name>.</change> <change when="2013-01-17">Facsimile coding added by <name sameAs="#mhawkins">Michael Hawkins</name>.</change> </revisionDesc>
<roleName>
<roleName> (role name) covers appellations such as ‘Mr’, ‘Mrs’, ‘Sir’, ‘Goodwife’, or other formulae besides personal names, job titles, or social or familial relations (e.g. ‘Mr Uvedales servant’, ‘Smiths cosen’) used to specify a person’s identity.
Attributesatt.casebooks.minimal.certainty (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) )
@typeis currently only used in the master name files. The only valid values currently allowed are "prefix" or "additional".
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • prefix
  • additional
Note

If someone is identified solely by their role name and this is given in Latin (or any other language apart from English), it should be translated into English in the header.

Titular role names such as ‘Lord’, ‘Mrs’, ‘Alderman’, ‘Dr’, ‘Goodwife’ should be the first child element within <persName>, while more descriptive ones (e.g. ‘Bishop of London’) should be placed last. In most cases this reflects the way in which they are presented in the original. There are cases in which it is debatable whether a given formulation counts as a <roleName> or not. Less clear-cut examples will have to be resolved by editorial consultation.

Example
<persName><roleName>Mr</roleName> <forename>John</forename> <surname>Perkins</surname></persName>
Example
<persName><roleName>Lady</roleName> <surname>Throckmorton</surname></persName>
<row>
<row> contains one row of a table.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.tableDecoration (@role, @rows, @cols)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<rs>
<rs> (referencing string) contains a general purpose name or referring string.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • address
  • date
  • time
Note

For Casebooks purposes, <rs> is used almost exclusively to mark up addresses as recorded in the source text and takes the @type value "address" and an @xml:id value of "address1" (or "address2", "address3" etc. if more than one address is recorded in a single document or the same address is mentioned more than once. If the same address is referred to more than once in a document, any subsequent references point back to the @xml:id value of the first one by means of a @sameAs value.

Any terminal punctuation should be placed after the <rs> tag (as in the first example above), though medial punctuation may be included within it.

Both current and former addresses (if any are mentioned) should be marked up with <rs> in exactly the same way. See <residence> for guidance on how to distinguish former from current addresses. Prospective addresses and other place names should be marked up with <placeName>.

If the same address is referred to more than once in a given file, each mention after the first should be given its own <rs> tag with a @sameAs value pointing to the @xml:id value of the first corresponding <rs>.

The @next and @prev attributes are needed only in the fairly rare event of a single address being presented as two or more non-contiguous text strings separated by other text that does not form part of the address. Their values point to the @xml:id value of each other’s <rs> element, as in the final example above, and the relevant <residence> element in the header points to the first of the available @xml:id values.

Example
<p>Elisabeth Haynes <rs type="address" xml:id="address1">of <lb/>Hanslop</rs>. 28 y.</p>
Example
<p>my Cosen Stocker intreated me to goe to <rs type="address" xml:id="address1" next="#address2">Mr Cutlers house</rs> to see him being extreme sicke &amp; I came thither <rs type="address" xml:id="address2" prev="#address1">in london</rs> march 29</p>
<salute>
<salute> (salutation) contains a salutation or greeting prefixed to a foreword, dedicatory epistle, or other division of a text, or the salutation in the closing of a letter, preface, etc.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<samplingDecl>
<samplingDecl> (sampling declaration) contains a prose description of the rationale and methods used in sampling texts in the creation of a corpus or collection.
Attributesatt.declarableatt.global (xml:id, @style, @rendition, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@xml:id(identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Required
Datatype ID
Legal values are:
  • catalogued
  • standardSampling
  • wholeEntry
Note

NB: Editors will only need to specify a <samplingDecl> when a case is not subject to our normal sampling policies. At present, that means that the only time that it will be used is when the entire entry has been transcribed. In order to ensure that this information is entered consistently, transcribers should use the supplied entity (&wholeEntry;).

Should you feel that an additional class of <samplingDecl> needs to be created, please contact the senior editors so that it can be debated.

Example
<samplingDecl xml:id="wholeEntry"> <p>This entry has been transcribed in its entirety, with the exception of any charts or astrological notes.</p> </samplingDecl>
<schemaRef>
<schemaRef> (schema reference) describes or points to a related customization or schema file
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type) att.resourced (@url)
@keythe identifier used for the customization or schema
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.xmlName
Example
<schemaRef type="interchangeODD" url="http://www.tei-c.org/release/xml/tei/custom/odd/tei_lite.odd"/><schemaRef type="interchangeRNG" url="http://www.tei-c.org/release/xml/tei/custom/odd/tei_lite.rng"/><schemaRef type="projectODD" url="file:///schema/project.odd"/>
<secl>
<secl> (secluded text) Secluded. Marks text present in the source which the editor believes to be genuine but out of its original place (which is unknown).
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
@reasonone or more words indicating why this text has been secluded, e.g. interpolated etc.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Example
<rdg source="#Pescani"><secl><l n="15" xml:id="l15">Alphesiboea suos ulta est pro coniuge fratres,</l><l n="16" xml:id="l16">sanguinis et cari vincula rupit amor.</l></secl></rdg><wit>secl. Pescani</wit>
<seg>
<seg> (arbitrary segment) represents any segmentation of text below the chunk level.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.segLike (@function) (att.datcat (@datcat, @valueDatcat)) (att.fragmentable (@part)) att.typed (@type) att.written (@hand) att.notated (@notation)
@declsidentifies one or more declarable elements within the header, which are understood to apply to the element bearing this attribute and its content.
Derived fromatt.declaring
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • #translation
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<seriesStmt>
<seriesStmt> (series statement) groups information about the series, if any, to which a publication belongs.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<seriesStmt><title>Machine-Readable Texts for the Study of Indian Literature</title><respStmt><resp>ed. by</resp><name>Jan Gonda</name></respStmt><biblScope unit="volume">1.2</biblScope><idno type="ISSN">0 345 6789</idno></seriesStmt>
<settingDesc>
<settingDesc> (setting description) records the circumstances of the consultation itself, and contains <date> (if ascertainable), <time> (if ascertainable) and <cb:consultation> with all its component elements. <date> and <time> should each nest inside its own <p> element within <settingDesc>.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable
Note

This element (but not its content) is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<settingDesc> <p><date when="1605-12-26" n="Thursday"/></p> <p><time when="09:00:00"/></p> <cb:consultation> <cb:consultant ref="#rnapier"/> <cb:practice name="napier"/> <cb:querent ref="#at"/> <cb:subject ref="#at" present="unclear"/> <cb:topic key="unspecifiedMedical" evidence="internal"><person sameAs="#at"/></cb:topic> <cb:judgment/> <cb:info type="urine"/> <cb:info type="event" subtype="unclear"/> </cb:consultation> </settingDesc>
<settlement>
<settlement> contains the settlement within which the original document’s respository is to be found. For Casebooks Project purposes, this is invariably Oxford.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="234">MS Ashmole 234, f. 1r</idno> &Forman001; </msIdentifier>
<sex>
<sex> records a participant’s sex.
Attributesatt.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@cert(certainty) expresses the editor’s level of certainty about a deduced sex if there is any doubt.
Derived fromatt.global.responsibility
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.probCert
Legal values are:
  • high
  • medium
  • low
@evidenceexplains the grounds on which someone’s sex has been determined or conjectured if this is not apparent from the transcribed part of the entry. A value of internal means the relevant evidence is in the untranscribed part of the entry, external means it is somewhere external to the entry (including elsewhere in the casebooks), and conjecture means there is no concrete evidence but there are grounds for supposing one of the options to be likelier than the other.
Derived fromatt.editLike
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • internal
  • external
  • conjecture
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • explicit
  • implicit
@valuedefines the sex of an individual according to ISO 5218:2004. 1: Male (with M as content), 2: Female (with F as content) and 0: Unknown (with U as content).
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.sex separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • 1
  • 2
  • 0
Note

The (male) authors of this document would like to stress that it is not they but the ISO that has deemed women to be ‘the second sex’.

In most cases, a person’s sex is evident from her or his forename, role name or occupation, the nature of her or his complaint if it is gender-specific, mention of menstruation, pregnancy or other gender-specific phenomena, or from the personal pronouns or Latin adjectives applied to her or him. Where such evidence appears in the untranscribed part of the entry, @evidence takes the value "internal". Beware, however, of ambiguous forenames: ‘Matthew’, for instance, may at this period be either male or female, while ‘Frances/Francis’ is almost invariably spelled ‘Frances’ by Forman and ‘Francis’ by Napier, irrespective of gender. Similarly, ‘Clement’ may refer to a person of either gender and should be regularised in the header as ‘Clemence’ if female or ‘Clement’ if male. In such cases, if there is no evidence as to gender, the regularisation most closely approximating to the spelling used by the practitioner should be used in the header, with (obviously) a @value value of 0 on <sex>.

Typical grounds for invoking an @evidence value of conjecture are someone’s having an occupation that was largely but not wholly confined to one gender (millers, for instance, are at this period far likelier to be male but female millers are not unheard-of), or someone’s being referred to in the entry by their surname alone, with no forename or role name: in most but by no means all of the cases where it has proved possible to ascertain such a person’s gender, it is male.

Example
<sex value="1">M</sex>
Example
<sex value="2">F</sex>
Example
<sex value="0">U</sex>
<sic>
<sic> (Latin for ‘thus’) contains a text string as originally written but which appears to represent a mistake on the part of the author or scribe.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

<sic> always precedes <corr> (containing the proposed correction) within <choice>.

Where the erroneous text comprises part of a longer word or numeral, the <sic> and <corr> elements should contain the whole word or numeral, even if only one character requires correction.

Where the content of <sic> is a symbol or abbreviation that would otherwise be supplied with an expansion using <orig>/<reg>, no regularisation is needed within <sic>, though if the content of <corr> is itself a symbol or abbreviation, the entire <choice> string becomes the content of the <orig> part of a further <choice> string with the regularisation of the corrected version forming the content of <corr> (see the third example above).

Where the problem is either that the text tagged by <sic> should not have been there in the first place or that it should have been deleted but was not, <corr> takes a @type value of "noText" or "delText", as in the third and fourth examples above and as discussed in more detail in the entry for <corr>.

Example
… her leg swelleth and hath an <choice><sic>issoe</sic><corr>issue</corr></choice> …
Example
… Ian Brown of <choice><sic>of</sic><corr type="noText"/></choice> Akely …
Example
… the <choice><sic>4</sic><corr type="delText"/></choice> <add place="supralinear">5</add> may 1630 …
Example
<choice><orig><choice><sic>h</sic><corr>&SaturnSymbol;</corr></choice></orig><reg type="gloss">Saturday</reg></choice>
<signed>
<signed> (signature) contains the closing salutation, etc., appended to a foreword, dedicatory epistle, or other division of a text.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<socecStatus>
<socecStatus> (socio-economic status) contains an informal description of a person's perceived social or economic status.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
@typecharacterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • atBirth
  • atDeath
  • dependent
  • inherited
  • independent
@schemeidentifies the classification system or taxonomy in use, for example by pointing to a locally-defined <taxonomy> element or by supplying a URI for an externally-defined system.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
@codeidentifies a status code defined within the classification system or taxonomy defined by the @scheme attribute.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<sourceDesc>
<sourceDesc> (source description) contains the elements describing the source document.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<sourceDesc> <bibl type="positionOnPage">uL-2</bibl> <msDesc> <msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="234">MS Ashmole 234, f. 1r</idno> &Forman001; </msIdentifier> <msContents> <msItem> <locus from="0001r" to="0001r"/> <title sameAs="#main_title"/> </msItem> </msContents> </msDesc> </sourceDesc>
<sp>
<sp> (speech) contains an individual speech in a performance text, or a passage presented as such in a prose or verse text.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.ascribed (@who)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<space>
<space> indicates space deliberately left blank in the source text.
Attributesatt.typed (@type) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (resp, @cert) att.global.source (@source) att.dimensions (unit, extent, @quantity, @precision, @scope) att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)
@unitdefines the unit in which the space is measured. Permitted values: "chars" (characters), "words" or "lines".
Status Required
Datatype
Legal values are:
  • chars
  • words
  • lines
@extentgives the number of units in question, expressed as an integer in Arabic numerals.
Derived fromatt.dimensions
Status Required
Datatype teidata.text
@dim(dimension) indicates whether the space is horizontal or vertical.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • horizontal
  • vertical
Note

There is no need to obsess about the precise length of a <space>: a reasonable approximation is quite sufficient.

Not to be confused with <gap>, which indicates material omitted from the transcription for whatever reason (usually because it is missing or illegible). <space> is for gaps deliberately left blank in the original.

Example
… my Ladye <space unit="chars" extent="6" dim="horizontal"/> Greeneway …
In this example (CASE30043) it seems likely that Napier had forgotten Lady Greenway’s first name and intended to supply it later, but never got round to doing so.
Example
<p>… <foreign xml:lang="la">qu&aelig;rit an sit <lb/>gravida</foreign></p> <space unit="lines" extent="5" dim="vertical"/> <p><lb/>Mrs Smith <lb/><foreign xml:lang="la">qu&aelig;rit an sit gravida</foreign> …</p>
<state>
<state> contains a description of some status or quality attributed to a person, place, or organization often at some specific time or for a specific date range.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.typed (@type) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<subst>
<subst> (substitution) contains a deletion and an addition where the added text replaces the deleted text.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.transcriptional (@status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (@evidence)) (att.written (@hand)) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
Note

<del> should always precede <add> within <subst>, even if the caret mark or other insertion indicator appears, physically, before the deleted text string.

Example
… Will: Bale of <subst><del type="strikethrough">Newport</del> <add place="supralinear">Emmertone</add></subst> …
Example
… March. 10 Monday h. <lb/><subst><del type="over">2</del><add place="over">3</add></subst>. 30 p m. 1600 …
<summary>
<summary> contains an overview of the available information concerning some aspect of an item (for example, its intellectual content, history, layout, typography etc.) as a complement or alternative to the more detailed information carried by more specific elements.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<summary> This item consists of three books with a prologue and an epilogue. </summary>
Example
<typeDesc><summary>Uses a mixture of Roman and Black Letter types.</summary><typeNote>Antiqua typeface, showing influence of Jenson's Venetian fonts.</typeNote><typeNote>The black letter face is a variant of Schwabacher.</typeNote></typeDesc>
<supplied>
<supplied> marks up text that is illegible or lost in the original but can be at least conjecturally supplied, with a @cert value of "high|medium|low" if there is any doubt.
Attributesatt.editLike (@evidence) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.source (@source)
@cert(certainty) expresses the degree of certainty about the proposed completion, on a scale of hi, medium or low.
Derived fromatt.global.responsibility
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.probCert
@resp(responsible party) indicates who is responsible for the proposed completion, if he or she wishes to be held responsible, expressed as the relevant @xml:id value preceded by a hash character.
Derived fromatt.global.responsibility
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
@reasonexplains why the original is illegible. Permitted values: "binding" (text is lost in the gutter due to over-zealous binding), "bleedthrough", blot" (blotted), "blotDel" (text is obliterated by what could either be an accidental blot or a deliberate deletion), "code" (text is written in a code that we can decipher), "copy" (poor quality of the image being transcribed from), "damage" (manuscript damage), "del" (illegible deletion), "faded", "foxed", "hand" (indecipherably poor handwriting), "omitted" (text appears to have been omitted from the original document but we have no means of supplying it), "over" (text is impossible to read because it is written over other text — if it is impossible to read because other text is written over it, it counts as "del").
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • binding
  • bleedthrough
  • blot
  • blotDel
  • code
  • copy
  • damage
  • del
  • faded
  • foxed
  • omitted
  • over
  • hand
Example
… Mary waller of B<supplied reason="binding" cert="high">ed</supplied><lb/>ford …
<support>
<support> contains a description of the materials etc. which make up the physical support for the written part of a manuscript.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Example
<objectDesc form="roll"><supportDesc><support> Parchment roll with <material>silk</material> ribbons. </support></supportDesc></objectDesc>
<supportDesc>
<supportDesc> (support description) groups elements describing the physical support for the written part of a manuscript.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
@materiala short project-defined name for the material composing the majority of the support
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
  • paper
  • parch
  • mixed
Example
<supportDesc><support> Parchment roll with <material>silk</material> ribbons. </support></supportDesc>
<surname>
<surname> (surname) contains a family name, with the optional @type values "adopted", "alternate", "deckname", "maiden", "maidenAlternate", "maidenVariant", "married", "marriedAlternate", "marriedVariant", "nickname", "variant" (see the Guidelines for advice on exactly when and how to apply these).
Attributesatt.casebooks.minimal.certainty (@evidence) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) )
@typeexplains the type of surname. Permitted values: "adopted", "alternate" (the second of two alternative surnames by which a person is referred to, where neither can be given any other @type value based on the evidence within that entry), "variant" (the second of two alternative surnames by which a person was known, where neither can be given any other @type value based on the evidence within that entry, and where the two surnames closely resemble one another but are sufficiently distinct not to be different spellings of the same name), "maiden" (the surname that a girl or woman inherited from her parents, sometimes still used after marriage), "married" (the surname taken by a woman on marriage to match her husband's), "deckname" (a false surname either given by a querent or used by a practitioner to conceal the person's identity), "nickname" (for the extremely unusual situation in which we know that a surname was informally bestowed rather than being inherited, a married name, or given to conceal the person's identity), "maidenAlternate" (the second of two alternative maiden names by which a girl or woman is referred to), "maidenVariant" (the second of two alternative maiden names by which a girl or woman is referred to, where the two surnames closely resemble one another but are sufficiently distinct not to be different spellings of the same name), "marriedAlternate" (the second of two alternative married names), or "marriedVariant" (the second of two alternative married names, where the two surnames closely resemble one another but are sufficiently distinct not to be different spellings of the same name). Typically in case files only alternate, married and maiden are needed; the others should not be used without clearance from a senior editor.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • adopted
  • alternate
  • deckname
  • maiden
  • maidenAlternate
  • maidenVariant
  • married
  • marriedAlternate
  • marriedVariant
  • nickname
  • variant
Note

If a surname is unclear or partially illegible in the original, the legible or conjecturable parts should be included in the header with appropriate <unclear>, <supplied> and/or <gap> elements.

@type takes the value "adopted" in the case of someone adopting a different surname (as opposed to acquiring one by marriage or being referred to under a false name). In the one instance in which this has arisen at the time of writing, a man took to using his mother’s maiden name to bolster his claim to her father’s estate, for which there were no immediate male heirs.

Example
<persName><forename>Elizabeth</forename> <surname>Blundell</surname></persName>
Example
<persName><roleName>Mrs</roleName> <surname type="married">Mansell</surname></persName>
<table>
<table> contains text displayed in tabular form, in rows and columns.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
@rowsindicates the number of rows in the table.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.count
Note

If no number is supplied, an application must calculate the number of rows.

Rows should be presented from top to bottom.

@cols(columns) indicates the number of columns in each row of the table.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.count
Note

If no number is supplied, an application must calculate the number of columns.

Within each row, columns should be presented left to right.

Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<taxonomy>
<taxonomy> defines a typology either implicitly, by means of a bibliographic citation, or explicitly by a structured taxonomy.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

Nested taxonomies are common in many fields, so the <taxonomy> element can be nested.

Example
<taxonomy xml:id="tax.b"> <bibl>Brown Corpus</bibl> <category xml:id="tax.b.a"> <catDesc>Press Reportage</catDesc> <category xml:id="tax.b.a1"> <catDesc>Daily</catDesc> </category> <category xml:id="tax.b.a2"> <catDesc>Sunday</catDesc> </category> <category xml:id="tax.b.a3"> <catDesc>National</catDesc> </category> <category xml:id="tax.b.a4"> <catDesc>Provincial</catDesc> </category> <category xml:id="tax.b.a5"> <catDesc>Political</catDesc> </category> <category xml:id="tax.b.a6"> <catDesc>Sports</catDesc> </category> </category> <category xml:id="tax.b.d"> <catDesc>Religion</catDesc> <category xml:id="tax.b.d1"> <catDesc>Books</catDesc> </category> <category xml:id="tax.b.d2"> <catDesc>Periodicals and tracts</catDesc> </category> </category> </taxonomy>
<TEI>
<TEI> (TEI document) is the parent element containing the whole of the electronic file, both metadata and transcription.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
@versionspecifies the version number of the TEI Guidelines against which this document is valid.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.version
Note

Major editions of the Guidelines have long been informally referred to by a name made up of the letter P (for Proposal) followed by a digit. The current release is one of the many releases of the fifth major edition of the Guidelines, known as P5. This attribute may be used to associate a TEI document with a specific release of the P5 Guidelines, in the absence of a more precise association provided by the @source attribute on the associated <schemaSpec>.

Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

<teiHeader>
<teiHeader> (TEI header) contains all the metadata pertaining to the document in question.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins, though several of its component parts need to be added or modified by the transcribers or editors, as explained in the documentation for the relevant elements.

Example
<teiHeader> <fileDesc> <titleStmt> <title xml:id="main_title">CASE118</title> </titleStmt> <publicationStmt> <publisher>The Casebooks Project</publisher> <pubPlace>Cambridge</pubPlace> <date when="2010-07-05">05 July 2010</date> </publicationStmt> <sourceDesc> <bibl type="positionOnPage">bL</bibl> <msDesc> <msIdentifier> <country>UK</country> <settlement>Oxford</settlement> <repository>Bodleian Library</repository> <collection>Ashmole Mss</collection> <idno n="234">MS Ashmole 234, f. 16r</idno> &Forman001; </msIdentifier> <msContents> <msItem> <locus from="0016r" to="0016r"/> <title sameAs="#main_title"/> </msItem> </msContents> </msDesc> </sourceDesc> </fileDesc> <profileDesc> <handNotes> <handNote sameAs="#sforman">Simon Forman</handNote> </handNotes> <langUsage> <language ident="en">English</language> </langUsage> <textClass xml:base="../05-master-lists/consultation-types.xml"> <catRef target="#horary"/> </textClass> <particDesc> <listPerson> <person xml:id="sforman"> <persName><forename>Simon</forename> <surname>Forman</surname></persName> <sex value="1">M</sex> </person> <person xml:id="jw"> <persName><forename>Joan</forename> <surname>Walker</surname></persName> <sex value="2">F</sex> <age value="17">17</age> <residence sameAs="#address1" key="databaseNormalizedIDKey"/> </person> </listPerson> </particDesc> <settingDesc> <p><date when="1596-04-14" n="Wednesday"/></p> <p><time when="09:10:00"/></p> <cb:consultation> <cb:consultant ref="#sforman"/> <cb:practice name="forman"/> <cb:querent ref="#jw"/> <cb:subject ref="#jw" present="unclear"/> <cb:topic key="diz" resp="#sforman"><person sameAs="#jw"/></cb:topic> <cb:judgment/> <cb:treatment/> </cb:consultation> </settingDesc> </profileDesc> <revisionDesc> <change when="2009-12-12">Data entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet by <name xml:id="rralley">Robert Ralley</name> as part of the Casebooks Pilot Project.</change> <change when="2010-07-05">XML file created by <name xml:id="mhawkins">Michael Hawkins</name> from Casebooks Pilot Project data.</change> <change when="2010-09-13">Transcribed by <name sameAs="#rralley">Robert Ralley</name>.</change> <change when="2010-10-03">Checked by <name xml:id="jyoung">John Young</name>.</change> <change when="2012-07-05">Facsimile coding added by <name sameAs="#mhawkins">Michael Hawkins</name>.</change> </revisionDesc> </teiHeader>
<text>
<text> for Casebooks purposes, contains only the element <body>, which in turn contains the text of the transcribed document.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls) att.typed (@type) att.written (@hand)
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins, though the @xml:lang value needs to be manually revised if the principal language of the text is not English.

Example
<text xml:lang="en"> <body> <div> <p><lb/>Mary my meaden <lb/>did send her water. <lb/>Decemb 1. Thursday hor. 8. 40 <lb/>am. 1603.</p> <p><lb/>payned mightily in her hed.</p> </div> </body> </text>
<textClass>
<textClass> (text classification) serves, for Casebooks purposes, solely as a container for a single <catRef> specifying the type of text in question.
Attributesatt.declarableatt.global (xml:base, @style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@xml:baseprovides a base URI reference with which applications can resolve relative URI references into absolute URI references.
Derived fromatt.global
Status Required
Datatype
Note

This element is generated automatically at the time of the file’s creation. Transcribers need only concern themselves with the @target value of <catRef>.

Example
<textClass xml:base="../05-master-lists/consultation-types.xml"> <catRef target="#horary"/> </textClass>
<time>
<time> records the time of the consultation or of an event recorded in it, such as a birth, death or marriage. It is described in ISO format (hh:mm:ss) and may be expressed as a range if a precise time cannot be determined. It has no content.
Attributesatt.editLike (@evidence) att.global (style, rendition, xml:lang, xml:base, xml:space, @xml:id, @n) att.global.linking (synch, next, prev, @corresp, @sameAs, @copyOf, @exclude) att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source) att.dimensions (unit, quantity, extent, scope, @precision)
@whendefines a specific time.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@notBeforedefines the earliest possible time or beginning of a time range where this is not known precisely.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@notAfterdefines the latest possible time or end of a time range where this is not known precisely.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@fromdefines the beginning of a time range.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
@todefines the end of a time range.
Derived fromatt.datable.w3c
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
Note

No <time> element is needed if a time range has been specified by using the @from-custom, @to-custom, @notBefore-custom and/or @notAfter-custom attributes on <date>.

Seconds are only there to keep the ISO happy. Forman and Napier quite often specify times down to the minute, but never more precisely than that, so in practice the last two figures of @when, @notBefore, @notAfter etc. will always be 00.

Where two or more mutually exclusive times are recorded for a given consultation or event, or the time stated is open to two or more interpretations, the alternatives should both or all be given, using the @xml:id and @exclude mechanism as illustrated above and explained in more detail in the Guidelines.

Example
<time when="17:45:00"/>
Example
<time notBefore="08:00:00" notAfter="13:17:00"/>
This means ‘some time between 8:00 am and 1:17 pm on the same day’. Where a range of (for instance) some time between 8:00 am on one day and 1:17 pm on another is needed, this should be recorded using the @notBefore-custom and @notAfter-custom values on <date>.
Example
<time when="07:15:00" xml:id="time1" exclude="#time2"/> <time when="19:15:00" xml:id="time2" exclude="#time1"/>
This is typically used if the entry gives the time as ‘15 p. 7’ and there is no means of ascertaining whether this means 7:15 am or 7:15 pm.
Example
<time when="08:00:00" xml:id="time3" exclude="#time4"/> <time when="08:05:00" xml:id="time4" exclude="#time3"/>
This is typically used where conflicting times are recorded in the same entry.
<title>
<title> contains the title of the electronic document.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
@typeclassifies the title according to some convenient typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
  • main
  • sub
  • alt
  • short
  • desc
Note

This attribute is provided for convenience in analysing titles and processing them according to their type; where such specialized processing is not necessary, there is no need for such analysis, and the entire title, including subtitles and any parallel titles, may be enclosed within a single <title> element.

@levelindicates the bibliographic level for a title, that is, whether it identifies an article, book, journal, series, or unpublished material.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • a
  • m
  • j
  • s
  • u
Note

The level of a title is sometimes implied by its context: for example, a title appearing directly within an <analytic> element is ipso facto of level a, and one appearing within a <series> element of level s. For this reason, the @level attribute is not required in contexts where its value can be unambiguously inferred. Where it is supplied in such contexts, its value should not contradict the value implied by its parent element.

Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins, and its content automatically modified when a CASE number has been assigned to the entry in question.

Example
<title xml:id="main_title">CASE1</title>
<titleStmt>
<titleStmt> (title statement) for Casebooks Project purposes serves only as a container for the <title> element.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Note

This element is generated automatically before transcription begins.

Example
<titleStmt> <title xml:id="main_title">CASE1</title> </titleStmt>
<trait>
<trait> (trait) is currently only used, for Casebooks purposes, within <person> or (theoretically) <personGrp>, where a person or group is described in an entry in terms of place of origin or regional affiliation. It takes the @type value "regionalIdentity" and contains <desc>, which in turn contains a succinct natural-language account of that identity, e.g. ‘Devonshire woman’, ‘Frenchman’.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod)) att.editLike (@evidence) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost))
@typedescribes the type of trait being defined, the only currently permissible value being "regionalIdentity".
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • regionalIdentity
Note

Not to be confused with <residence>, which defines someone’s current place of residence, whether or not this is the same as her or his place of origin. A Welshman living in Milton Keynes has ‘Welshman’ as a regional identity and ‘Milton Keynes’ as an address. In the above example (CASE8592) the person is described in the text as ‘a Kintesh man in Canterbery’.

This element is used only rarely, where there is an explicit statement of regional identity in the original record.

Example
<trait type="regionalIdentity"><desc>Kentish man</desc></trait>
<typeNote>
<typeNote> describes a particular font or other significant typographic feature distinguished within the description of a printed resource.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.handFeatures (@scribe, @scribeRef, @script, @scriptRef, @medium, @scope)
Example
<typeNote scope="sole"> Printed in an Antiqua typeface showing strong Italianate influence. </typeNote>
<unclear>
<unclear> denotes uncertain readings, with a @reason value indicating the reason for the uncertainty and a @cert value expressing the transcriber’s confidence in her or his reading on a scale of "high|mediumlow".
Attributesatt.editLike (@evidence) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost)) att.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) att.global.rendition (@rend) att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude) att.global.facs (@facs) att.global.change (@change) att.global.responsibility (cert, @resp) att.global.source (@source)
@cert(certainty) signifies the degree of certainty associated with the intervention or interpretation.
Derived fromatt.global.responsibility
Status Required
Datatype teidata.probCert
@reasonPermitted values: "binding" (text is lost in the gutter due to over-zealous binding), "bleedthrough", "blot" (blotted), "blotDel" (text is obliterated by what could either be an accidental blot or a deliberate deletion), "code" (text is written in a code that we can only conjecturally decipher), "copy" (poor quality of the image being transcribed from), "damage" (manuscript damage), "del" (deletion),"faded", "foxed", "hand" (poor handwriting), "over" (text is hard to read because it is written over other text — if it is hard to read because other text is written over it, it counts as "del").
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
  • binding
  • bleedthrough
  • blot
  • blotDel
  • code
  • copy
  • damage
  • del
  • faded
  • foxed
  • over
  • hand
<div><head>Rx</head><p>500 mg <unclear reason="illegible">placebo</unclear></p></div>
Example
<p>… qu&aelig;rit quis ei <lb/><unclear cert="high" reason="binding">s</unclear>urripuit argentum …</p>
<variantEncoding>
<variantEncoding> declares the method used to encode text-critical variants.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
@methodindicates which method is used to encode the apparatus of variants.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • location-referenced
  • double-end-point
  • parallel-segmentation
Note

The value parallel-segmentation requires in-line encoding of the apparatus.

@locationindicates whether the apparatus appears within the running text or external to it.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
  • internal
  • external
Note

The value external is inconsistent with the parallel-segmentation method of apparatus markup.

Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<witEnd>
<witEnd> (fragmented witness end) indicates the end, or suspension, of the text of a fragmentary witness.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.rdgPart (@wit)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<witness>
<witness> contains either a description of a single witness referred to within the critical apparatus, or a list of witnesses which is to be referred to by a single sigil.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

<witStart>
<witStart> (fragmented witness start) indicates the beginning, or resumption, of the text of a fragmentary witness.
Attributesatt.global (@style, @rendition, @xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.rdgPart (@wit)
Note

This element is not currently used by the Casebooks Project. If you feel that this element is necessary, please consult the senior editors.

Model classes
model.addressLike
model.addressLike groups elements used to represent a postal or email address.
Used bymodel.correspActionPart model.pPart.data
Members<affiliation>
model.biblLike
model.biblLike groups elements containing a bibliographic description.
Used by<event> model.inter model.msItemPart model.personPart <org> <place> <sourceDesc> <state> <taxonomy> <trait>
Members<bibl> <msDesc>
model.biblPart
model.biblPart groups elements which represent components of a bibliographic description.
Used by<bibl>
Membersmodel.imprintPart [<pubPlace> <publisher>] model.respLike [<author> <editor> <funder> <respStmt>] <bibl> <listRelation> <msIdentifier>
model.choicePart
model.choicePart groups elements (other than <choice> itself) which can be used within a <choice> alternation.
Used by<choice>
Members<abbr> <corr> <ex> <expan> <orig> <reg> <seg> <sic> <supplied> <unclear>
model.common
model.common groups common chunk- and inter-level elements.
Used by<argument> <body> <div> <figure> <postscript>
Membersmodel.divPart [model.lLike [<l>] model.pLike [<ab> <p>] <lg> <sp>] model.inter [model.biblLike [<bibl> <msDesc>] model.egLike model.labelLike [<desc>] model.listLike [<list> <listEvent> <listOrg> <listPerson> <listPlace> <listRelation> <listWit> <table>] model.oddDecl model.qLike [model.quoteLike [<quote>] <q>] model.stageLike]
Note

This class defines the set of chunk- and inter-level elements; it is used in many content models, including those for textual divisions.

model.correspContextPart
model.correspContextPart groups elements which may appear as part of the correspContext element
Used by<correspContext>
Membersmodel.pLike [<ab> <p>] model.ptrLike [<ref>] <note>
model.correspDescPart
model.correspDescPart groups together metadata elements for describing correspondence
Used by<correspDesc>
Members<correspAction> <correspContext> <note>
model.dateLike
model.dateLike groups elements containing temporal expressions.
Used bymodel.correspActionPart model.pPart.data
Members<date> <time>
model.descLike
model.descLike groups elements which contain a description of their function.
Used by<category> <char> <gap> <glyph> <graphic> <media> <schemaRef> <space> <taxonomy>
Members<desc>
model.divBottom
model.divBottom groups elements appearing at the end of a text division.
Used by<body> <div> <figure> <lg> <list> <table>
Membersmodel.divBottomPart [<closer> <postscript> <signed>] model.divWrapper [<argument> <byline> <dateline> <salute>]
model.divBottomPart
model.divBottomPart groups elements which can occur only at the end of a text division.
Used bymodel.divBottom <postscript>
Members<closer> <postscript> <signed>
model.divLike
model.divLike groups elements used to represent un-numbered generic structural divisions.
Used by<body> <div> <lem> <rdg>
Members<div>
model.divPart
model.divPart groups paragraph-level elements appearing directly within divisions.
Used by<lem> macro.specialPara model.common <rdg>
Membersmodel.lLike [<l>] model.pLike [<ab> <p>] <lg> <sp>
Note

Note that this element class does not include members of the model.inter class, which can appear either within or between paragraph-level items.

model.divTop
model.divTop groups elements appearing at the beginning of a text division.
Used by<body> <div> <lg> <list>
Membersmodel.divTopPart [model.headLike [<head>] <opener> <signed>] model.divWrapper [<argument> <byline> <dateline> <salute>]
model.divTopPart
model.divTopPart groups elements which can occur only at the beginning of a text division.
Used bymodel.divTop <postscript>
Membersmodel.headLike [<head>] <opener> <signed>
model.divWrapper
model.divWrapper groups elements which can appear at either top or bottom of a textual division.
Used bymodel.divBottom model.divTop
Members<argument> <byline> <dateline> <salute>
model.emphLike
model.emphLike groups phrase-level elements which are typographically distinct and to which a specific function can be attributed.
Used bymodel.highlighted model.limitedPhrase
Members<foreign> <title>
model.encodingDescPart
model.encodingDescPart groups elements which may be used inside <encodingDesc> and appear multiple times.
Used by<encodingDesc>
Members<charDecl> <samplingDecl> <schemaRef> <variantEncoding>
model.eventLike
model.eventLike groups elements which describe events.
Used by<listEvent> model.orgPart model.personPart <place>
Members<event> <listEvent>
model.gLike
model.gLike groups elements used to represent individual non-Unicode characters or glyphs.
Used by<bibl> <byline> <closer> <date> <dateline> <head> <idno> <l> <lem> <locus> macro.paraContent macro.phraseSeq macro.specialPara macro.xtext <opener> <origDate> <rdg> <time>
Members<g>
model.global.edit
model.global.edit groups globally available elements which perform a specifically editorial function.
Used bymodel.global
Members<addSpan> <app> <gap> <space>
model.global.meta
model.global.meta groups globally available elements which describe the status of other elements.
Used bymodel.global
Members<link>
Note

Elements in this class are typically used to hold groups of links or of abstract interpretations, or by provide indications of certainty etc. It may find be convenient to localize all metadata elements, for example to contain them within the same divison as the elements that they relate to; or to locate them all to a division of their own. They may however appear at any point in a TEI text.

model.graphicLike
model.graphicLike groups elements containing images, formulae, and similar objects.
Used by<char> <facsimile> <figure> <glyph> model.phrase <table>
Members<formula> <graphic> <media>
model.headLike
model.headLike groups elements used to provide a title or heading at the start of a text division.
Used by<argument> <event> <figure> <listEvent> <listOrg> <listPerson> <listPlace> <listRelation> <listWit> model.divTopPart <msDesc> <msFrag> <org> <place> <state> <table> <trait>
Members<head>
model.highlighted
model.highlighted groups phrase-level elements which are typographically distinct.
Used by<bibl> model.phrase
Membersmodel.emphLike [<foreign> <title>] model.hiLike [<hi>]
model.hiLike
model.hiLike groups phrase-level elements which are typographically distinct but to which no specific function can be attributed.
Used bymodel.highlighted model.limitedPhrase
Members<hi>
model.imprintPart
model.imprintPart groups the bibliographic elements which occur inside imprints.
Used bymodel.biblPart
Members<pubPlace> <publisher>
model.labelLike
model.labelLike groups elements used to gloss or explain other parts of a document.
Used by<event> <lg> model.inter <org> <place> <state> <trait>
Members<desc>
model.listLike
model.listLike groups list-like elements.
Used by<abstract> model.inter <sourceDesc> <sp>
Members<list> <listEvent> <listOrg> <listPerson> <listPlace> <listRelation> <listWit> <table>
model.lLike
model.lLike groups elements representing metrical components such as verse lines.
Used by<head> <lg> macro.paraContent model.divPart <sp>
Members<l>
model.measureLike
model.measureLike groups elements which denote a number, a quantity, a measurement, or similar piece of text that conveys some numerical meaning.
Used bymodel.pPart.data
Members<geo> <num>
model.milestoneLike
model.milestoneLike groups milestone-style elements used to represent reference systems.
Used bymodel.global <org> <subst>
Members<anchor> <cb> <fw> <lb> <milestone> <pb>
model.msItemPart
model.msItemPart groups elements which can appear within a manuscript item description.
Used by<msItem>
Membersmodel.biblLike [<bibl> <msDesc>] model.msQuoteLike [<incipit> <title>] model.quoteLike [<quote>] model.respLike [<author> <editor> <funder> <respStmt>] <idno> <msItem>
model.msQuoteLike
model.msQuoteLike groups elements which represent passages such as titles quoted from a manuscript as a part of its description.
Used bymodel.msItemPart
Members<incipit> <title>
model.nameLike
model.nameLike groups elements which name or refer to a person, place, or organization.
Used bymodel.correspActionPart model.pPart.data <org>
Membersmodel.nameLike.agent [<name> <orgName> <persName>] model.offsetLike [<geogFeat>] model.persNamePart [<addName> <forename> <genName> <nameLink> <roleName> <surname>] model.placeStateLike [model.placeNamePart [<country> <district> <geogName> <placeName> <region> <settlement>] <state> <trait>] <idno> <rs>
Note

A superset of the naming elements that may appear in datelines, addresses, stateme