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A treatise touching the Defenc of Astrologie (fragment A)

A treatise touching the Defenc of Astrologie

Truely i|I|f either the antiquity, pleasure, necessity or commoditie that any art offreth to the student & fessors therof. may cause & cure the love & good leeking of the well affected & disposed reader then I doubt not but this art of iudiciall astrologie will \also/ deserve, (if any Credit may be given to auncient stories & recordes) not only \her/ love & admiration. but also her \prayse/ approbation {sic} & due Commendation. now to beginne with her antiquitye & the founders & the inventors therof. We finded it recorded by good & substanciall authors. that they very first inventors therof were they holy patriarkes. who receaving that knowledge from god him selfe delivered the same touching the necessarye vse thereof. to there Children & so \it/ being by a certen traditionarye succession, derived from on to a nother, hath ever since thorough the gratious & mercifull videnc of thalmightie continued not withstanding the shipwrack of many good art, even to this age of ours, & so shall we doubt not continewe if by vaine sustition & fonde Curiositie it be not abvsed, vntill the end of the world: Iosephus1 an auncient writer mutch cōmended by men of good note. after he had cōmended Seth which was on of the godly patriark, for his studye & love of godlines / he sayeth that Seth left behind him his nephues in all good tes leek vnto him\selfe/. who found out sideralem sciam ac cælestium rerū cognitionē the scienc of the stars & the knowledg of the heavens. \& the things there{illeg}/ & least sayth he this knowledge should happelie perish, before it came to mans notice Seth having hard because Adam had phecied, of a generall deluge & destruction that should come thereafter tly by fier {sic} water & tly by fier, to the intent that this arte & knowledg touching the stars might amongst other art be well saved & preserved, \from flouds and flames/ erected two pillers thon of stone thothr of brick engraving in each of them fearing the worst \what might ensue/ amongst other art, this on \noble art/ of astrologie, that if it so fortuned. that the, on of the pillers should by any Casualtye \happen to/ perish. yet thothr that remeaned might \at the last/ preserve it thoose art wch god would have Adam to cōmunicate to his posteritie. <f. 50v> Berosus also an old historiographer \amongst the Chaldæans/ ascribeth to Abrah{am} the finding out of Astrologie his words be these as th{ey} are cited by Iosephus2 post diluviū autē decima ætate, {erat} apud Chaldæos quidā iustitiæ cultor vir magn et syderali{s} sciæ peritus: that is, After the flood in the tenth age, {there} was amongst the Chaldæans a certen great & famous m{an} a great lover of iustice & a man very skilfull in the kn{ow}ledge of astrologie. furthr the same Iosephus further affirmeth that Abraham first taught the Egyptians th{e} knowledg of the stars: whose words are these et nu{me}ro sciam et syderū benigne illis cōmunicavit, nā ante Abrahami ad se adventū, Ægyptij rudes erant huiusmod{i} discipl: quæ a Chaldæis ad Ægyptios fectæ, hinc ad G{}cos tandem venerunt that is to say, Abraham most frindly & lovingly imted to the Ægyptions not only th{e} knowledg of nūbers but also of the stars of wch bef{ore} Abrahams cōming vnto them, they were altogeather ig{no}rant wch art afterward being derived from the Cha{l}dæans to the Ægyptians, ceeded so farre, vntill th{ey} came at lenghth into the hands of the Græcians |the same Iosep. c. 4 affirmeth yt god did therfore give {illeg}|V|nto the patria{illeg}|k|ces sutch a longe terme of yeres boath because they were deere vnto him as also because he would have the arts to be invented by there meanes & espec: the art of astrologi & geometrie the certentye wherof they could not els have attayned vnto./| th{is} you have seene by the report of Iosephus & Bero{sus} that the knowledg of Astrologie, is no newe found science, but descended from auncient tymes from {sic} Adam to Seth from Seth to his nephewes & so {to} Nohe. & his Children & thenc to \the Chaldæans & so to/ Abrahā who t{aught} it to the Ægyptians & they againe to the Græcian{s and} so \at lenght/ to the Romaines. Epigenes3 a grave author affirmeth that there were found tables of stones in the whi{ch} were engraved astrologicall observations 720 yeres b{efore} Nin governour of the Assyrians & Phronæus kinge {of} ye Græcians raigned as Plynye testifyeth & Annius, {Vi}terbiensis doe witnes.4 Marianus Scotus writteth yt A{bra}ham erected two pillers, but wheathr they were the sam{e} wth those pillers spoken of by Iosephus I leave it as m{ mat}ter yt needeth further inquisition & discussion. yet this I may boldly conclude vppon the testimony of many autho{rs} yt those pillers were set vp for the prservation of Astrolog{y}

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Alexander the historiographer in his volume wch he writeth of the storye of the Iewes hath this saying.5 Abraham was borne in Camerine a citty of babilone wch the Græcians & latinist call Chaldæopolis, who excelled all others in wisdome, this was he who first founded amongst the Chaldæans the scienc of Astrologie of whom god so well leeked for his iustice & pietye, yt by ye cōmaundemt of god he came into Phænicia. & there he dwelled & taught them howe to recken the motion of the sonne & moone & sundry othr poynt of Astrologie. for wch cause he was well of accepted of the kinge of the phænicians & in|a| fewe lines after he addeth, yt Abrahā oppressed wth a dearthe of victualls he wente into Ægypt & dwelt at heliopolis wth the pre|i|ests, at whose mouth they priest learned astrologie. who not wthstanding plainly Confessed that he was not the first inventor therof but receaved it by order of succession & tradition from Enoch. herevnto may be added that there be of the moderne and Neotericall writers yt ioyne \in this poynt/ with the aunciant writers that the scienc of Astrologye had his originall from the \our/ first parent. herevppon it \is/ that \Peucerus/ that learned Doctor & phisition. Peucerus \expreslye/ affirmeth |Astrologiam {a} primis obser{va}tā parentib {ac} posteris {tra}ditā mihi dubiu {sic} non est Peuc {illeg} cōmentario {de} prcipuis gene{nerib} divinationū {illeg}lo de astrolog {illeg} 81.| that the scienc of Astrologie was observed longe a goe, of our first parent & so delivered to there successours of wch sayth he I make no doubte at all as you may more fully see in his com |worthy| & learned cōmentary of the divrse & principall kinds of divination in his treatise of Astrologie & the same Peucer in his booke entiteled the element of the \in his/ doctrine \of the celestiall circels {sic}/ touching the \sphere &/ celestiall cirkels6 he deriveth the knowledg of Astrologie from Adā himselfe & so downeward from his successours as it were by lineall descent even to his owne tyme namyng every authoure that \was {sic}/ of any speciall note that had written of this scienc by there names shewing wthall the tymes wherin they lived & florished. of the same iudgment is yt famous & notable philoso{illeg}{g}|ph|er Garceus in his booke of the iudgment of nativities.7 where he sayth. Illud tantū monemus. μαντικην illā verā et sanā sive physicā, quæ causas celestes mutationis naturæ inferioris scrutatr munitā ee non tantū primorū <f. 51v> parentū et patrū authoritate, qui effectus syderū vestigarūt et posteris tradiderunt, sed etiā voce celesti quæ in doctrina ecclesiæ patefacta est \vt/ sint in signa, tempora, dies et anno{s} an nō hic decernit deus, vt stellæ intr quas luminū prcipua {vis} sint in signa, i. ante conspecta et considerata, erudiant nos de mutationib temporū vi stellarū excitatis, quæ toto cælo fulgentissima, incredibili sapientia that is to say. This thinge only we will tell you that that prognostick te of astrolog{y} wch he there \he feareth not to/ pleaseth to {sic} call by the name of true sounde ph naturall philosophye, for as mutch as it searcheth out the \heavenly/ Causes of the chaunge \ & alteration/ of things here beneathe. we tell you saythe he yt it is approved not only bye the autho{ri}tie of our first parent & fathers, wch sought out the what effect & force every starre had, but it is more over iustifyed by the heavenly voice wch is revealed in the doctri{ne} of the church of god where it is sayd, Let them be for signes & distinction of tymes days & yeares. tell me I pray you sayth he, doth not god here plainlye appeare {sic} \avoutche/ that they stars but especially \that/ they two light sh were made of him, for to be notes & signes wch before considered iing wth good iudgment & advice, might instructe vs touching the Chaunges of tymes & seasons wch are caused by reason of the force \& influence/ of the stars. by this then that hath bene \hetherto/ sayd it cannot but \must needes/ appeare vnto yo{u} that the knowledg of Astrologie is of great antiquitye as auncient as our first parent Abrahā Nohe, O|E|{noch} Seth \yea/ & Adam him selfe you have \breeflye/ seene the antiquitye {of} Astrologie, \may/ well it nowe please you in a worde to hea{r} of {sic} her \somewhat touching/ the pleasure & fit yt cōmeth therof.8 Plato yt prince of philosophers \ravished as it were with the pleasure of that divine studye/ is of opinion, that god at the first gave man \his/ eyes, to no other end principally to behold that goodly scaffold & theater of heaven wch god h{ath} so decked & embrodered wth stars, as it were with faire Rubies & bright carbunkels & cleer shyning diamonds where{to} Ovid alludeth. Os hoi sublime dedit cælū tueri Iussit, et erectos ad sydera tollere vultus. That is. God made him man a stately weight. With face and eyes all set vpright And this he did, that man so might, Both vewe and Kenne the starry light.

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What marvell then, if that great & famous philosopher Anaxagoras,9 when he was asked wherto he was borne, answered \in no other sort then this/ Ad cælū intuendū \even/ to take \a/ vewe of the heavenly pallace. nowe then \then/ sithence \then/ it is cleere that god hath given men eyes as it were with pleasure & solace to vewe that sumptuous theater & pallace of heaven so ritchly garnished wth stars as wth prtious margarites of inestimable value can any man marvell \then/ if there have bene found sutch in all ages, as have bene excedingly delighted & ravished wth the studye & contēplation therof. It is reported of Thales Milesius10 on of the sages of Grece that he was oftentimes soe ravished wth the contēplation ther of the heavens and yt goodly \glitering/ & glorious furniture there vnto \therof/ appartayninge that he forgote many tymes \even/ to Cherish his \owne/ body wth natures afforded sustenaunce, & had oftentymes perished if a /then the {sic}\ good \tender/ nource /of him selfe {sic}\ had not by good hap \had had no greater care of him nourced {sic}/ fed & fostered him as her \owne/ Child it canot be denyed but that he tooke exceeding delight therin \sithence because he seldome went abroad/ when on a tyme his eyes \but his eyes/ & mind were boath so fixed & set vppon they heavens & the study therof, that as he went he so stared on the stars, that \and as he went/ he fell into a deepe ditche, |{for h}e so de{ligh}ted in the knowledg {of the} stars I say {illeg}s his {illeg}ht. that {when} he wal{ked a}broad {he} would {not} leave {of star}ing on {the sta}rs vnt{ill} he some{times} stūbled {vpo}n a ditche| wch a woman well ceaving quipped him {sic} \the philosopher/ with this prty gleeke Syr philoso \quoth shee/ you mynd so mutch. the heavens, & \you/ fixe your eyes so ernestly vppon the heavens, that your feete doe ever stumble vppon the pit. here I could shewe you not only of philosop. but \also/ of great emperours & princes that have taken no small delight in ye in ye cōtemplation of the heavens & in ye study of Astrologie. but being so many as there have bene, whō {sic} would you I should cite, shall I then begin with Iulius Cæsar I but \but/ where & with whom shall I |first| beginne, sithenc there have bene many yt have bene well affected towards Astrologie. surely I will begin with Iulius Cæsar because his fame hath so far exceeded others, as the sonne exceedeth \svrmountheth/ the lesser stars. <f. 52v> This Iulius Cæsar11 as it is recorded of him, bare sutch affection to this studye yt even in the middest of all his busines, he would set ate som vaca{nt} tyme wch by way of recreation he would bestow{e} thereon. to this Lucan12 beareth witnes. where h{e} saythe Media intr prlia sem stella cæli pla{gis} superis vacavi. yt is Amongst \Amidst/ the fearfull noys{e} |Amidst {sic} conflicts greate & mars his bloody iars I sought to knowe the nature of the stars.| of drums, of guns, & weapons soare, To knowe th{e} natures of the stars I searched moare & moare. H{ere} I might speake of Tiberius Cæsar13 Iulius his success{our} who tooke sutch pleasure in this studye. yt hi{s} minde in a manner was wholly set therevppon as Suetonius writeth of him. & s in cesse of ty{me} he fited so mutch in yt studye as Dion yt wor{thy} historiographer14 writeth vt ob stella cognitionem vales evasit prstantissimus. yt by his knowledge he had of the stars he became an expert astrolog{er} na rather as it were a famous phet & was able by his cūning skill to foretell of things to com{e.} here I might reporte vnto you, how Alexander the Emperour15 who was very skilfull in this scienc so favoured the fessors thereof, as that he was the first of all others who at Rome appoynted p{en}sions & honours for Astrologye the fessors of A{stro}logie. whom he cured to teach this scienc pub{lick}lie. what should I here speake of Bardas the emperour.16 who was so greatly delighted with th{is} studye. that he caused Leo the emperour \that learned/ mathe{ma}tician17 to teache publicklie at Cansti\anti/nople the m{a}thematicall sciences assignyng him a worthy pens{ion} for his paynes; howe mutch Charels the great18 stoo{d} affected to this studye his learned Ephemerides wch he wrote doe beare witnes to his everlasting fam{e} I will omitte to speake of Alfonsus yt famous king of Spayne19 who to the ende that he might wth greater <f. 53r> libertie addicte him selfe to that studie of Astrologie where vnto nature had enclined him, he willinglye refused the Romaine empire voluntarely offred & vrged vppon him & surely if he had left nothing els behinde him. yet his admirable tables explanyng & vnfoldinge whatsoever was comprised in Astronomye, had bene inough to have eternised his name to the ends of the world. I may not here passe over in silence how mutch \well/ Charels. the first20 stood affected to that worthie scienc. who amidst his great affayres would always by stealth bestowe some vacant leasure \tyme/ vppō these studyes & so highly esteemed of the fessours of this science yt with great rewards he allured them to his societie & very frindly & honorablely he entertayned \on/ Turrian Cremensis because he shewed him, by instrument of his owne devising the motion of the eight heaven. & \for that he/ Counselled & directed him to enterprise his battell he entended agaynst the Saxons, wch succeeded very prosperouslye according to there \his/ prconceaved hope. præscius vt aiunt, quid eventurū esset, foreknowing by reason of his cūning skill what should be the issue of that battle. many moe examples of to leeke effect might be alledged. but I hope these may suffice to shewe that great pleasure & delight have bene ever taken and conceaved in that scienc of the heavens. wheathr you \please to/ call it by the name of Astronomy or Astrologie. none {sic} touching the as this scienc is full of pleasure, \very pleasant and delightsome/ so is it \is it/ no lesse cōmodius & fruictfull for it sheweth & teacheth vs the \wonderfull/ course of the heavens the \strange/ motions \qualities/ and admirable inf vertues & influences effect & oations of the planets & stars \which they worke/ vppon the inferiour bodyes \for/ they shewe vs the tymes & seasons of the yere yeare, the springe the sūmer. autue. & winter. also when they sūne is days {sic} \{sic} night/ are of even length in all places of the world. as also when the {sic} days be at longest when at shortest & when \the days & nightes are/ of an even lenght in all places of the world, \besides/ further they shewe vnto <f. 53v> vnto {sic} vs the eclipses of sonne & moone. the moon{es} chaunges & alterations, the \conveenient/ tymes & seasons of {plan}ting, grafting. sowing. felling of wood, blood letting {&} sutch leeke. as also these wth many moe cōmmo{dities} ceede from the knowledg of the stars in fine it {is} so a knowledg so beneficiall & necessary yt no good scienc can well wante it \for/ It is manifest that h{us}bandry navigation phisicke Lawe. and Divinity are m{uch} holpen by it. husb. because it prscribeth the fittest ty{mes} for there scienc to wit when the season serveth b{est} to sowe, to plant to graft to cut to prune, navig{ation} tis mutch furthered therby, because it maketh many l{au}dable instrument. by wch a skilfull navigatour m{ay} not only governe h & direct L his ship, but also {prog}nosticate by vewe taken of the stars, of sudden a{lte}rations & chaunges of the aier, of stormes & winds eithr \in tyme/ to drive into the harbour or els to make an{y} what prparation he may to prvent the worst: physicke is not a litle ayded therby when he iudge{th} duely of cōplexions, prscribeth right order of diet in governanc of health, for iust ministration of medsons in tyme of sicknes in right iudgment of Criticall days {with}out wch physicke is to be accōpted vtterly vnfect. I{t} helpeth also to Lawe especially when contract & bargaynes be made, where tyme is necessary to be obser{ved} but specially if they depend of moveable feast. {As} for divinity. it is so necessary thervnto yt the true observation of ecclesiast feastes the tymes of the yea{re} would sone rūne out of there courses, & the right o{b}servation of feast. especially of Easter wherof hath bene great controversie in the churche, could not {be} dulye kept wthout the knowledg hereof, na it is s{o} necessary to Divinity. that many the booke of Iob ca{illeg} with out the knowledg of this scienc could not {be} well expounded \vnderstood/ mutch les vnderstoode \rightly expounded/. wherf{ore} I may conclude that this scienc is \exceding/ necessary & fitabl{e} in the manifold occurrent of mans affayres

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Alexander the emp skilfull in this faculty first of all others at Rome appoynted pensions & honours for Astrologers, because this he would have this scienc taught publickly. Bardas was \the/ |empe|rour \favoured/ greatly Astrology, that he caused Leo, that learned Mathematician publickly to teach at Constantinople the mathematicall sciences assigning him a worthy pension for his paynes. howe mutch Carolus the Charles the great affected these studyes his learned Ephi {sic}\e/merides wc he was reported to write. did beare witnes to his everlasting fame. & looke howe mutch he was famed abroad for the handling of weapons, so mutch he was æternised at home, for the skilfull vsage of the Astronomicall instrument. I will not speake of Alfonsus that famous king of Spayne {sic} who to the end he might wth greate pleasure & liberty addict him selfe to the study of Astrology, wherevnto nature had enclined him, as mutch as any that ever lived, he willingly refused the Romaine empire offred voluntarily offred & vrged vppō him. / if he had left nothing els behind him. yet methincks his admirable tables explaning & vnfolding whatsoever is comprised in a maner in Astrology. & belongeth to the fession & knowledg of that art. had bene inough to have eternized his name to the ends of the world. I cannot here passover in silenc howe well Charles the first. that emperour of worthy em memory stood affected to this \noble/ scienc. for he if he could steale any vacāt |tyme| & leasure out amidst the manifold businesses he was dayly \en/cōmbred with. surely he would bestowe it in those studyes. after he {sic} wc he thirsted so mutch howe greatly he esteemed the \learned/ fessors of this study, may appear by the rewards he allured them to his society. who is there almost yt knowethe not howe frindly & honourablely he entertained Turrianus Cremensis {sic} for that he shewed him by sutch instruments as he had devised for that purpose the motion of the eight heaven, \by/ whose counsell & direction. he to enterprised that his battle agaynst the Saxons. wch succeded according to {illeg} & fell out most sperously \{accor}ding to there prconceaved hope/ prscius vt aiunt quod eventurū esset. fore knowing as they say what should be the issue of that battle.

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but whervnto tendeth all this but to shewe you that many princes have tasteth|d| of the pleasu{re} & profitt of Astrologye. hetherto have you hea{rd} of the pleasure nowe if you please it follow{eth} we should speake of the fitte. & surely if we should speake of the fitt of this scienc \as we ough{t} {sic}/ \as we ought and it deserved/ it w{ould} make our litle treatise to become a volume. And beca{use} some & those not of the vulgar sort, but of the {lear}ned do {illeg} thinke that Astrology to be vtterly voide of all probility {sic} in her iudgments. & to be an art altogeath{er} fraudulent. & \meerly/ sophisticall that hath no vse at all {illeg} that wch is mecu therfore it shall not be a labour mispent to roote out sutch a misconceaved opinion void of all senc & reason out of the harts of reasona{ble} men: & howbeit there be some learned men that d{oe} thinck that the \heavens with the/ stars & planets in them, have \make/ no impression at all in these inferiour bodyes. yet if men will not come wth mindes forestalled with priudice. but will indifferently mark what shalbe alledged. I doubt not but they themself will alter there iudgement \ and become more indifferent in this case/ that the heavens wth the stars & planet wc god hath mad no doubt for the singular good of all his yeartly creatures subiect to those celestiall & sunall bodyes doe make there impres{si}on on the bodyes wc are vndr the circuite & com{illeg} first what \deepe/ learned man is there, that hath not heard that old auncient position & maxime in Aristotels philosophy \in his first booke vppon the meteors & 2 chap/. to wit Inferiora corpora reguntr{sic} supe{rio}rib a lationib superiorū corporū that is howe these yearthly bodyes beneath are mutch ruled {illeg} |that is| moved, altered affected & disposed after the moti{ons} of the heavenly bodyes. this position of Aristotels wc he no doubt receaved frō the old auncient philosop{hers} that went before him, as grounded vppon dayly exper{ienc} all learned philosophers that have have with on \vniform/ cons{ent} approved. as Averroes. Niphus, Vicomercatus {A}{illeg}ho{illeg} \Thom{as}/ Scotus Albertus schola Coloniensis Lov{illeg}stis. C{onim}bricensis. Paulus Venetus & all that have cōmented vppō that {text} of Aristotles on the 1 book of the meteors 2 chapter <f. 55r> This Trismegistus in his booke entituled Asclepio Plato in Theæateto Philo Iudæus in his booke de nundi {sic} opificio & in his booke also where he treateth of the migration of Abraham Ptolomæus in his 2 book called Almagest c. 12. and in his first book de iudicijs of iudgments St Dennys in his 4 booke in his chaptr of the names of god yea St Augustine boo L. 13. c. 4. of the trinitye St Basill in his Hom. 6. of the his Hexameron & divers other fathers & the Sc to shut vp all in a word even the whole Chorus & cōpany of all the learned schoole divines \as/ Thomas of Aquine Albertus surnamed for his knowledg the great. Bonaventure Scotus Biel Marsilius Durand \with infinite moe/ writing vppō the 2 booke of sentences Peter Lombards sentences distinction the 15 all these affirme & avouch wth on generall consent that the heavenly bodyes make there action & impression vppō these yearthly bodyes wch lie \here/ beneath them & surely we need not \greatly/ the testimonyes of wi so many wise men for the fe of this matter, especially sithenc that it is so manifestly ved by daily experienc. for see we not by daily. howe the motion of the sonne causeth that distinction of the yeare in to foure seasons to witte the spring. sommer Autūne & the winter causing \yea/ the two æquinoctials at sutch time as the sonne cometh into the & \that is our springe & harvest time/ at what time the houres of \the/ day & night are equall. almost in all the tes of the world & also can making & causing \more over/ the 2 solstices or stuckings of the sonne. for at two times of the yeare to witte whē the sonne cōmeth into & into . \that is in our sommer & winter/ the sonne moveth so \slowly/ litle that he seemeth to our eyes in a maner to stand still. nowe of these is caused the \daily/ chaung of heate & cold & \so consequently/ the generation & corruption of earthly bodies see we not in the {sic} spring season howe all things in the wintr when the sonne is of small power to cōfort the vegetables {sic}\talls/ of the yearth how \all things doe wether & decay for lack {sic}/ for lack of {sic} chere the sons {sic} cherefull warmth & heate {sic} \lack of the sons cherefull heate/ doe wither & decay. <f. 55v> wch when the sonne cōmeth on thenc to the poynt of the spring. doe as things wakd out of a ded sleepe revive & springe a gayne. but most evidently this may be seene in the course of the moone wch Aristotle calleth the lesser sonne. which hath his dominion. over all moyst things whose course they following encrease & decrease wth the moone as you may see in the ebbing & flowing of the seases {sic} \seas/ in shell fishes in pla{tes} & vegetables of the yearth yea in the bodyes of all living things consisting of the 4 humours & elements. all wch is cons being found true by daily exsperienc & confirmed by sutch a troop of learned witnesses as being some philosophers some A{stro}logers. some some schole divines some godly writers some holy learned fathers {illeg}|I|{sic} \I/ cannot but marvell howe any seing sutch a light so clear & evident would not with standing, suade vs. that These sunall bodyes have no power nor vertu{e} given them of the almighty to worke any effect Vppō these yearthly bodies. Thus on sayth definire nos non otet quæ in inferiorib hijsce eveniunt nullo modo cælestiū corporū sive astro virtute fici. that is we must needes hold & constantly affirme that whatsoever it be that happeneth in these yearthly bodies it can by no meanes be ascribed to the celestiall bodies as if they could cause any impression or effect in them & a while after answering to that old receaved position of Aristotles. Inferiora Reguntr a suiorib the nethrmost bodyes are governed by the Vppermost. He sayth that Aristotle attributing so mu{ch} vnto the stars, which were but creatures, could n{ot} attayne vnto the creator him selfe whenc he say{eth} it came to passe, that Aristotle also held the world to be eternall & many moe \absurde/ positions lieke to the fore{most} contrary to the evidenc \sayth he/ of the scripture thus Hyperius denyeth this position of Aristotle as false & flatly repugnant to the scriptures. as you s {sic} may see in his lib. 2. of the work of the 4th day & 5 ques{tion} of his method of Divinitye {illeg}

{illeg} <f. 56r> Here I might \cite/ Hippocrates who sayth if we may beleeve Mordic his interpreter who translated hims his \the translatour of that/ that {sic} treatise that goeth vnder the name of Hippocrates yt auncient father of phisick \{if} that be his treatise wch is fathered on him. I meane which is/ intituled de significatione mortis et vitæ scdm motū lunæ et aspectas planeta that is of the signification of death & life according to the motion of the moone & othr aspect of the planets. hippocrates saying of {sic} phis \this hippocrates will tell vs, that/ astrologye {sic} is this. \who sayth in that treatise/ Medico ignoranti Astrologiā nemo debet se cōmittere manib eius To sutch a phisition as is vtterly ignorant of Astrologie no man ought to commit him selfe into his hands \& this he addeth for a reason/ because he is \not/ sayth he \without this knowledg/ fectus medicus a fect phisition. therfore hippocrates holdeth phis \astrologye/ necessary to the fection of phisick. the same hippocrates in his aphorismes hath t putteth \also/ this downe amongst his Aphorismes \as a necessary coinsell {sic} of phisitions diligently to be observed/ sub cane et ante canē nō est /sit\ purgandū. that a litle before the dog starre ariseth or \a while after/ when he is risen a wise phisition ought not to minister purging medicines. therfore hippocrates requireth the know at the hands of a phisition \that/ he should have the knowledg of astrologye. & hippocrates De {sic} \affirmeth in his booke de/ cæli qualitate sive de aere et aquis et locis \hath this saying/ Quod astrologia nō minimū sed valde plurimū ad medicinā conducit that Astrologye affordeth not a litle but very mutch helpe to the furtheranc of phisick. & hippocrates in a nothr place hath this saying. De cælestib reb et sublimibus nihil dicā nisi quatenus hoies aia cætera quæ in terris degunt gignuntr et nata sunt principiū et orig inde habere demonstrabo, quod aia de cælo sit quod dolere languere mori quicquid boni malive in hoie est de cælo fiscitr lib. de carnib of heavenly things I have nothing \els/ to say but this \only/ that I meane to shewe & demonstrate that men & all other living creatures besides that have there \abode &/ living vppon the earth. have there beginning & originall from the hea influenc of the heavens. yea the very soule it selfe is from heaven yea to be greeved to languish to Die & whatsoever good & evill is in man. ceedeth from the heavens. And agayne hipp. sayth that it behoveth a phisition to knowe the rising & setting of certen stars that so he may learne to avoyd the ch alteration & excesse of humours. it is evident therefore that by that wc hath bene sayd that hippocrates is of opinion that it is very expedient for an expert & absolute phisition to have \some/ knowledg in astrologye <f. 56v> And {sic} \herevppon it is that/ |that {sic}| \that {sic} hip. holdeth wth Astrology this is so cleere witness that {sic}/ Arnoldus De nova villa a phisition of great fame alle{illeg} \that {sic}/ alledgeth hippocrates in the countenaunc of astrologie to medicine that Hippocrates holdeth /to alledge the testimony of hipocrates who sayth. if Arnold is witnes a righ{t} {sic}\ Quod astrologia nō est s va is no lit{le} t medicinæ of phisick L. de conservand iuventute c. 3 & therfore this being soe \cleere & evident/. I cannot marvell inough why {sic} \marvell mutch why/ Erastus the phisition in his \very first/ epist. to Christopher Sthath{mion} on {sic} who held a phisition that \who/ held astrology to be needfull for {a} phisition him selfe being also a fessor of phisick & on w{ho} seemed to have done \the more/ good in phisick by the helpe of Astro{logye} wc made him the bolder to re by letters to reve Erastus {illeg} denyng that no benefit could growe to a phisition by astr{olo} {sic}gye. I marvell I say why this Erastus {sic} should so per{emp}torily affirme /therfore falsly affirmeth Erastus {sic}\ that in \all/ hipp his work \it {sic}/ can no where {sic} \place or testimo{ny}/ b{e} found that he \should any whit favour/ any {sic} whit favoureth \or lieketh well of/ astrologie. \and yet/ sithenc as have heard {sic} h it ved {sic} \you see his works doe favour it in some sort especially where he say{th}/ howe astrologia nō minimū sed {valde} plurimū conducit ad medicinā that Astrolog avayleth not a {li}tle but very mutch to phisick \wch Arnoldus as well seene in Hipp./ as Arnald a man of \also more a{unci}/ent & learned phisition & of mutch more fame then ov{illeg} Erastus was Doth affirmeth & acknowledgeth. L. de conse{rvand} iuventute. c. 3. but to leave Hippocrates let vs also see \what/the Galen. thincketh. th Certen it is that learned phisition{s} have ever made great accompt of the {sic} \& taken great heede in mens sicknesses by the/ Criticall Days. as it m{ay} appeare by there \the/ excellent cōmentaries wc learned men have written vppon that book of Galen de lib. 2. de dieb criti{cis} vel decretorijs. and amongst others Levin Lemnius \giveth this testimony of observing the Criticall dais/ l. 2 de occultis nat{uræ} miraculis \l 2. c. .32./. Si medici \quis/ inquit criticos dies exacte ad calculū revocet ex Hipp. prscripto, raro illū frustrari continget aut in prdicendis eve{ntibus} a scopo aberrare. If any sayth Lēnius shall exactly observe the cr{iti}call days \following Hippocrates prescript/ he shall seldome feale, \or misse/ in foretelling the issue what sha{ll be} the \end or/ issue of the disease. Nowe Galen sayth in his 3. lib. of the criticall days. that the alteration & state of diseases depend et{illeg} \criticall days by wch the issues of & alt{era}/\tion of diseases are wonderfully discerned doe wholy depend vppon/ vppon the motion of the moone. as the principall cause therof. nowe nowe a phisition cannot have the p exact {know}ledg of the criticall days. with except he have some kno {in}sight in astrology, it must needes therfore be graunted ev{en} by in the iudgment of Galen. that astrologye is needfull to {a} good phisition. further the same Galene in his the sixt {chapter} of the criticall days he termeth thē \no better then/ sophistes & deceavers wch d{oe} not constantly beleeve that the quadrat & oppositite {sic} aspects of the moone doe not cause in good v|b|eginnings good alterations & soe in evill beginnings the contrarye sithenc is {sic} is a thing so {ma}nifestly proved & confirmed by Dayly experience

<f. 57r>

Elg {sic} If that booke be \be/ Galens booke \which is entituled/ de decubitu ægroto \{e}x mathematica scia/ wch goeth vndr his name & is found amon ioyned in all auncient copyes wth his othr workes wch \as/ that learned phisition \Christopher/ Stathmion in his letters to erastus \in {sic} his writings as farre fourth/ veth to be his by sutch babalble {sic} reasons \coniectures/ as bookes doubted of may be ved. first because it hath bene by antiquity s {sic} both ioyned to his other workes \& beareth/ bearing his name as his others doe. as also because it mentioneth {sic} \citeth/ Diocles as his others doe {sic} \as Galen doth in other {sic}/ places {sic} \vseth to doe in other places/, because the stile agreeth with his other bookes. & this may further be added because m antiquity there cannot be named any othr author on whom it may be fathered \if this I say be leeke to be true/ then surely by that booke of Galens, which is \it would seeme/ altogeathr Astrologicall & observeth the same course that Astrologians doe. in these days. then \it/ is most evident that Galen leeketh well of astrologye. & thincketh it not \necessary/ vnneccessery for a phisition then it would seeme that Galen lieketh well of astrology & holdeth it as needfull & necess for a phisition. but be it that this book be none of Gallens, yet it can not be Denyed but that it is \approved/ as auncient \wul/ as Gallen{s} & therfore by the iudgment of an aunci as auncient as Galen. but if it may be ved. this booke that goeth vndr the name of Gallen be none of his as some doe thincke \but/ vppon what reason I knowe not sithenc then except it be becau eithr because it treateth aft of astrologye & alloweth that kind of iudgment wch seemeth harse \or vnacquainted/ in the eares of sutch as have \forestalled with priudice/ learned to hate astrology before ever the knowe the necessary vse therof. or els haps doe thinck this treatise to be none of his because it contayneth trifling toyes & fond fables or Gallen \Galen in some of his bookes speaketh agaynst/ art of divination or yet it will appeare by other bookes of Gallen that he lieketh well of Astrologye \especially/ wher he affirmeth that mens bodyes are mutch {sic} the temperatur \{&} dispositions/ of mens bodyes. & the disposition therof is mutch \are/ affected after the course of the stars. as also by his 3 booke de diebus Decretorijs. & that great is the force of the stars in touching the temperature or Distemperatur of mans bodye & besides he sharply reproveth sutch as are vnwilling to assent vnto it. for he sayth that dayly experienc Doth manifestly ve it that this force wherby mans body is so altered & chaunged cedeth from the influenc & efficacy of the stars. & that <f. 57v> He is no better then a sophister & a \very/ wrangler wch will g{oe} about to Deny so manifest experienc to the contrary. as Hip{po}crates & Gallen. leeke \well/ of astrology where they affirme quod {me}dicina sine favore celesti sepius inanis nexia {sic} reperitr. that physick \a medson/ wth t out the favour of heaven, that is the favoura{ble} constellation of heaven is found often times vaine & \not only vnfructfull {but}/ hurtful also hurtfull. for it is well knowne \that/ a phisition. may adm{inister} a medson in on constellation, wc may mortify & kill the s{icke} wc ministred in a more apt fitter constellation may eith{er} thorough may prserve him from death, or at leastwise shall {vide} him mutch ease nowe as I say as Gallene & hippoc{rates} do thinck astrology not vnnecessary for a phisition. So A{vi}cen that famous Arabian phisition approveth it where {he} holdeth this position: the very ground piller of all astrol{ogy} To wit. quod Secūdū res celestes. res terrestres eveniun{t} Secunda primi cap 8. that is the things here beneath {on} the earth do fall out according to the course of the heav{ens} & Abynzoar a famous phisition accordeth herevnto l. 1. c. 7 {de} epilepsia. Et fiunt in epilepsia paroxismi sicut in febri{bus} fieri consueverunt ex operatione et virtute su celestiū cor{po}rū. quæ a deo vivo et vero fectionē et influentiā habere et {re}cipere sciuntr certisse et cōbantr that is to say There doe hap{pen} in the epilepsy or falling evill certen sharpe fits as are wo{nt} to happen in the ague truely by the oation & vertue of {the} heavenly bodyes wch are knowen for a certenty that they rece{eave} there influenc fection & influenc from the true & everliving {god} & Arnoldus de nova villa a very famous phisition seemeth to {set} mutch by Astrologye & to mak{illeg} it requireth it to the vse of phisick as where he sayth that Astrologye is no \no meane/ litle {te} of phisicke as witnesseth sayt Hippocrates & this Arnold{} writeth in his booke of the prserving of youth c. 3. ag{ain} the same Arnold in his treatise of the epilepsy c. 1. hath this saying. Constat deū opificē sūmū genitorē deū cōmis{isse} ducatū naturæ sideris motib nō modica eorū influentia {in} corpore humano agit. that is It is cleere & evident that g{od} that worthy franer {sic} of heav the heavens hath cōmitted the cond{uct} of nature to the motions of the stars. & indeede the influenc of th{em} worketh no small oation in the bodye of man.{illeg}

{illeg} <f. 58r> And these were sutch as in all the operations of there hands they would observe the course of the heavens & the motion of the stars & plamets {sic} so heedfully & so carefully as they that expected & looked for health & happines to & every good gift els from the very stars supposing & verely beleeving that there was no othr god then the heaven wch opinion of theres because it constantly avoucheth that all & singulars effects actions & operations have there. cede danc or ceeding from heaven constrayning bending & violently cōpelling vs & so by due consequenc spoyleth & depriveth vs of all libertie & freedome of will & with all maketh god no voluntary & free worker, but a meere naturall agent for this cause I say this opinion is reiected & cōdēned & as impious and hereticall quite & cleane repugnant to the catholick faythe yea so aburde in sense & reason as the wiser sorte of philosophers have Disproved it by very drift of reason & refuted it as an aburde paradox nowe sutch astrologers as so absurdly held this former opinion are condēned boath by the lawes of god & man & by the canons of the church that is by the Cannon lawe none that any should be so absurd as to hold an opinion so grosse & brutish. may appeare by St Augustine L. 4 de civitate dei c. 11. & by St Thomas l. de catholica veritate c. 85. et 2 sent. distinct 15. q. 2. Philo Iudæus de migrat. Abrahami: et lib. eius de Abrahamo et August L. 5. de civitat. c. 6. et L. 3 de trinitat. et Dionysiū c. 4 de divinis noibus. the next opinion is of them who hold that they stars can doe nothing in vs & have noe worke at all in vs no not so mutch as to incline vs or to move affect alter & chaunge the humours in mans bodye but that god only moveth ruleth ordereth & disposeth all things by him selfe wthout the service of the heavens as sonne moone & stars & therfore doe thinke it a vayne thing to have any respect or \a{illeg}ll/ regard to the heavens. but as the former so this also is condēned to be false & erroneous by the iudgment of the soundest divines. & therfore well sayth Thomas in the confutation of this opinion L. 3. c. 80 cōtra gentiles. that we must vnderstand that albeit god touching his ordination & ordering of things he do dispose of all things by him selfe & of him selfe. yet in the execution of that he hath ordered & ordayned he doth vse {to} governe & rule the inferior bodyes by the superiour. & Scotus in his 1. distinct lib. 2. dist. 14. q. 3. approveth the same of that they heavens doe incline vs but not enfource vs wch he proveth by this instance, we see sayth he that <f. 58v> That the vnderstanding te in man when the organe of sense is hurted, \as that party where the fansy lyeth/ wc thing sayth he may happen by the {ev}{ill} position of the stars at the houre of his birthe. for the sense{s} then being evilly disposed. doe cause a distemperature in the fansy & the fansy being crased & disturbed, it bringeth the vnderstanding out of order as it is playnly & evidently to s{ee} in sutch as are frentick. & contrariwse sayth he the co{n}figuration of the stars doe helpe very mutch to the {b}|g|oodn{es} of the witt, cū bene in genitura ponantr when they are well affected in the birth & albeit seyth Thomas. l. 3 cō{tr} gentes c. 84. that god be the author & giver of scienc, y{illeg} sayth he the good disposition of the senses doth mitch {sic} av{illeg} to the capacity. alledging August. c. 5 de civit dei who seyth that it is not spoken absurdly ad solas corpor{um} differentias afflatus quosdā valere sydereos that is touch{ing} bodily infirmities the stars have there vertue & force. & he furthr alledgeth Damasc L. 2. c. 7. wher he sayth th{illeg} that this & that planet diverse on from the other {illeg} work & oation do cause diverse cōplexions habits & dispositions & therfore right well sayth the same St Tho{mas} that the stars may well be the cause of our good & evill wi{ll} for seyth he when they senses be well disposed, then the vnders{tanding} will is enclined to chose aright but the senses be ill disp{osed} then the will ceedeth \on/ accordingly evilly in her oations Thom{as} L. 2. distinct. 14. & therfore seyth he they Astrologians doe give there coniectures of good & evill maners fortunio ac infortunirie of god & ill fortune. and wherfore the same St Thomas in i te q. 115 art. 4. plærū astrologi ostent mēs Astrologers sayth {he} doe tell the trueth. in iudging of \a mans/ the conditions for there ar{te} very fewe that doe bridle there senses. & L. 3 cōtr gentes. c. {illeg} Although god sayth he doe move our wils & the aungell doth enlighten them. & the heavens doe incline them to choose well {illeg} evill. yet \when/ any a body is sayd to be happy touching god it may be sayd he is well governed. touching the angell well kept & touching the heaven well borne by meanes wherof it cōme{th} to passe that the Astrologer may iudge of the length or brevity of mans life. wch St Thomas also confesseth 2 de generat neere about the end in these words. When they planets in the circle of there period shalbe stronger, then they shall give the longer yeares, & when they shalbe weaker then shall they give the fewer yeares wherfore if a body might be so happy to knowe the vertue & efficacy of the signes & stars in them. then without doubt he might for a certenty <f. 59r> & might with all knowe h \for a certenty/ of what force that influenc of the heavens were, he might not only gnosticate a right of his whole life although none of them cause is able to cause a \/ necessity therof, because there may \be many/ ways to let & hinder it of this opinion is Scotus 2|l| 2. dist 14. & Bonavent. L. 2. sent. c. 14. et Durand et Bac ordinis Carmelito 2 sent. dist. 15. q. 3. but here it is to be knowen that there be thre sort of future event wherof some have a determinate & infallible cause as for example the motion of the heaven, the rising & setting of the signes, the connections of the planet, the eclipses of the light & sutch leeke in these \{be}cause these do depend vppon the vnvariable vniforme motion of the heaven/ of these it cannot be denyed but that the Astrol ext astrologer may by his art foretell \these/ things to come \beinge before they come to/ even of a certen infallible necessity as daily experienc sheweth scdly ther is a nothr sorte of things to come wch are Contingent wch have an cause l vndetermina {sic}ble\nate/ & fallible. sutch are they opations {sic} & actions of men. as are purely meerlely & simplely voluntary and therfore there have \of them there/ cannot be determined eithr trueth or falshoode \as the philosopher saith/ because the will of man is a thing vndeterminat & \apt/ to be turned to eithr t & therfore may be fallible & sutch as may be deceaved because may bars & let may happen betwixt wch may alter his will in her determination that shee may not bring her purposed Determination to effect & furthermore because the sense of man is \a thinge mutch/ more noble then & royall then the heaven & besides well knowen that a corporall & bodily thing cannot make his action & operation vppō the soule wch is spirituall, therfore it is impossible that the heaven should be able to alter & chaunge the soule of man. or to worke vppō the soule by inclining it except it be as they learned held by vndirect meanes of consequenc as vppō the sensitive te of man as & so \it may worke vppon the intellectuall t of man/ because the soule cannot vndrstand but phantasmata \because the sowle vnderstandes by the phantasmes obiected vnto it/ yt is by certen phantasms. so it may by that kind of consequenc worke vppon the soule & therfore cleere it is that sutch thing contingent things cannot be Descreed & be foretold of the astrologer except it be some \very/ sclender \& light/ coniecture. thirdly there are some other thing to come which have a determinate cause, but somewhat fallible, as those things wc depend tly vppon the will of man. & partly vppon the infuenc {sic} of heaven. & this because it hath a double nature, the on cælestiall & ethereall to witte <f. 59v> thothr the intellectuall soule, thothr that t wc is compou{nded} of the 4 element. wc is this mortall & fraile bodye of o{ures} therfore it must needes be {laide} & guided by two princip{les} that is ty {sic} by the cælestiall influenc of the heaven & tly by will & soe the effect & oations of the same are found to be diverse & mixed actions nowe of these a{r}{illeg} sinc they are more appropriated to the soule \bodye/ then the bo{dye} \soule/ & are les subiecte to the will of man, sutch as are{illeg} they {gooods} as they are comonly called the good I say of fortune, the affection of the body & soule & as it were sence & vnderstanding, health & sicknes a longe or a {illeg} terme of life & for the most te a violent death wc {illeg} not swayed by the will & wisdome of man. touching {wch} I suppose the Astrologer may give a very bable & {con}iecturall iudgment but not as the schooles say a priori. {from} the causes. \to the effects/ but a posteriori from the effectes to the cau{ses} {illeg} nowe againe of those things wch are subiect to the will of {illeg} & are in the power & freedome of mans will & may therf{ore} be ordered by & altered by mans will, although they be c{niectu}rally eng{roos}ed in the bodye of man by the from the in{illeg}enc of the heavens as \is/ our concupiscible & irascible {illeg} by wch we are naturalllly enclined eithr to lust or {an}ger & reveng & some to good civility vertue & temperanc{illeg} & some are ne to fraude rapine, touching those things I suppose also that the astrologer may give a bable iudg{ment} because his iudgment is given touching those things. to the {illeg} the heavens doe \naturally/ incline & dispose a bodye but this is {illeg} noted by the way that sutch men as followe vertues & suffer themselfs to be guyded by the rule of reason in there actions & affayres and d attempt nothing wthout {illeg} deliberation & consultation the iudgment the Astrologer g{illeg} in sutch a case is very fallible & deceiptfull contrariouse {illeg} he seeth a brutall man yt doth altogeathr followe the {illeg} of sense & lust. & by his brutesh sense & appetite is {illeg}ly swayed his iudgment for the most te is very ba{ble}

<f. 60r>

This being prmised I hope you see howe & in what actions an ext Astrologer may foretell of future event of the eclipses of the lights & of the & coniunctions and oppositions of the planets of infallible necessity \certenty that seldome/ \or never/ fayleth. of other future events that are contingent as are diseases. famine death pestilenc wc happen to mens bodyes by a very bable coniecture that often cometh to passe because mans cōplection & temperatur very mut is very mutch subiect to the heavens & ther impressions. If quest but here question may furthr be moved. wheathr if it be true that hath bene sayd that the heavenly bodyes by there influenc & vertue working vppō these yearthly bodyes wch in a maner depende vppon there motion & moving that the cause many things that happen here belowe by meanes wherof an expert Astrologer maye foretell sutch things as naturally depend vppon the suiouis {sic} bodyes & are wrought after a maner by them. if this be soe may on seye why then is Astrology Iudiciall Astrologie so mutch \greavously haynously/ condemned of as an art f altogeathr \sustitious/ false foolish & absurd yea very wicked & Diabolicall not t \in/ no case to be tolerated in a Chistian {sic} cōmon weale & that not by men vnletterd & vnlearned but by the learned of all ages & fessions. as philosophers. /emperours\ scriptures. fathers of the church. /{illeg}nes & canons\ councels, \old & ancient/ by Divines old & newe. by reason & dayly experienc. To this I answer that this accusation of iudiciall Astrologie is very greveous & pitifull. a very haynous & of {illeg}lambentable & worthy to be harkned vnto if sole that it can \be chardged with no more then can be/ as playnly & as truely & as strongly be ved as it Therfore to sithenc it is thus chardged & accused, let vs I pray you examine the tes & poynt of every ticular wher with it is chardged first of all you say, it is coēceed by all philosophers. first I aske by whom: wheathr \if you saye/ by Plato & his followers it is certen then must you soundly ve that to be soe out of Platos worke & the cōmentaries of this followers <f. 60v> nowe it is very bable that Plato cannot condēne it but he admitteth \of/ this position that they heavenly bodyes by there vertue & \strange effectes/ influenc worke \marvelously/ vppon these earthly bo{dyes} causing \in them/ the \that/ temperature or Distemperature wch is found {in} them |wch is the ground work and piller of this art|: so doth Plotine Porphiry Plotine Iamblic & fici{nus} nowe neither if you name Aristotle it is it will \it not/ not be eas{ye} for you to ve him \be ved/ that he cōdēneth it sithenc he confesseth that all elementary bodyes are govern{ed} by the vpper bodyes & other places sayth. yt so{l} et homo generant hoiem the sone & man doe {illeg} concurre boath to the generation of man. & aga{ine} the sune by his cōming & detur going & coming neerer to vs or further frō the yearth is the cause of the generation & corruption of things here benea{th} Arist the same Aristot. in his first of his politick{es} |in æmio| sheweth what a fitable peece of philosophy this {astro}logie is, he bringeth in Thales Milestius, who o{illeg} foretold \sawe/ by this scienc of Astrologie that it would b{illeg}er there would be a great Dearth of & scarcity of {illeg} & therfore in a tyme of plenty bought great stoc|r|e {of} olives. & so gathered great riches. all wc thing he {did} to showe that a cunning philosopher his poverty w{as} of voluntary choice, not of any necessary & that it {was} an easy thing to be ritch not only for him but an{ye} other that was a fect philosopher as he was to {be} ritch when he listed agane let them considr what {illeg} Aristotle sayth in his blemes where he referreth the {con}vulsions of infants vnto the actions of the moone {illeg} |rex clementtisse rex nec surgas, nec sedeas, cibū capias aut potum penitus nihil suo perit mathematici potest ne tacias Aristrist {sic}oteles ad Alexandrū| & of the same mind are they \some of the principall of the/ perepateticks as Aver{roes} De subtia orbis c. 2. vbi where he attributeth to the \motions of the/su bodyes the 4 first qualityes. heate & cold drouth {&} moysture also let them vewe his cōment 2. lib. de co{illeg} where he plainly avoucheth that they actions of the st{ars} have there \per & generall/ oation on every thing in there kinde & {s}{illeg} the better further cōfirmation & fe of this matter {illeg} alledgeth Aristotles booke which he wrote de cælestib {illeg} minib. wch is treatise is perished. & if that be Aristotle{s} booke wch & Aristotle in that booke wc is intituled de Æg{yp}tiaca sapientia doth ascribe very mutch to Astrologie by th{illeg} then wch hath bene sayd it appeareth they old auncient philosophers approved of Astrologie. <f. 61r> but perhaps thou wilt say that Picus de Mirandilam a man of great learning & iudgment hath written great volumes agaynst it to this what may be answered but this that as on swallowe maketh no sūmer. so neither doth \is/ the iudgment of one Picus sufficient to dispose the coniecterall & bable iudgment of iudiciall astrologie wch dependeth vppon naturall causes so longe as Astrologie is limited \contenteth her selfe to be kept without the/ within the bounds of naturall phisick & philosophie. \extendeth not her selfe/ so longe as the Astrologer extendeth not his knowledg beyond the limits of naturall philosophye & therfore Picus in the iudgment of men of as great lerning & iudgment is thought but to chatter as a pie agaynst it. some thinke he wrote agaynst it as Agryppa wrote his booke agaynst all art cōdēning them of vanity. more for ostentation of his wit & reading then for that he thought it worthy to be reiected & disproved of all men. or els it may be he did hav it write against it of very hatred he bare towards it. because as Iunctine writeth some astrologer had foretold him that the thirty 33 yere would be fatall to him in so mutch as he would hardly overlive that tyme as indede he did not. others doe thinck that howsoever it was that he wrote agaynst it that he wrote very ignorantly & vndiscreetly agaynst it & that he had small knowledg in astrology & bewrayeth great ignoranc \in/ of writing & cavilling agaynst it. this is Iunctines opinion touching Pic. Melancthon a very learned Divine, counteth of Pic no better then of a very cavilling pratler & that his reasons be fond & very absurd & soundly confuted by many learned writers amongst others by Lucius Bellantius as nowe if any man alledge howe Savonarola & Erastus have two learned men have vtterly condēned it. To these I answere first that Savonarola is thought to have written agaynst it, because he would have men to beleeve that his iudgments wch \in trueth/ ceeded from \th/ astrology wherin he was well seene, was but from some spirite of phecy or els it might may be yt Savonarola wrote agaynst by being wth the reading of Pic his bookes or els because Lucius Bellantius shewed him that he should die aw a not a naturall but a violent death yea that his fate should be to be burned <f. 61v> As for Erastus he is thought to have written the simpl{illeg} of all others & to have sed nothing agaynst it but that wch he had alledg gathered out of Savonarola w{ose} reasons are confuted by many learned men. here if an{ye} man obiect agaynst vs, that not only Pic frō whō Savonarola hath borowed his reasons but & Erastus {illeg} hath borowed all that he hath written frō Savonaro{la} doe condēne, but the very expresse oracles of god{es} word doe flatly & evidently condēne it. To this obiec{tion} we answere, that except the no scriptures truelye expounded. & not wrested from the true sence doe not condēne iudiciall astrologie so long as shee contayneth her selfe within \the/ her bounds of nature. & this answere of ours is not forged by vs, but shaped by learned devines \& others of great lerning/ thervnto. as Melancthon in his epitomy of natur{all} philosophy. Garcæ Selneccerus vppō genesis Lyra R{illeg}tius. Vrsin Hemingius. S Lyra Stus Thomas. Scotus Bonaventure. Garcæus Peucer. Iunctin. Gauric Petrus de Aliaco |but thou wilt say be not the scriptures agaynst me truely if they be not wrested out from their native sence| the first place of scripture yt is duced against it is taken out of Esay. c. 47. 41. v. 23 Shewe vs what is to come that we may say you are gods. certen it is that the scriptures condēne not Astrologie so longeth as it contayneth her iudgment within the bounds of her fession wch are they bounds of nature. as you may see by Thomas of Aquine Bonaventure Scotus Durand {illeg} learned schole men, by Petrus de Aliaco cardan{us} Gauric bishop in fine by ficin Peucerus {illeg} Garcæus M brentius Vrsin Melanchthon {illeg} Selneccer & many moe on this then consider{ed} we answere that the testimony of Esay is directed not against astrologers & there iudg wc is dependeth on the motions of the heavens & is gods ord{i}nainc but rathr it maketh agaynst the practise of vnlawfull & demoniacall art. as casters of lots of Inchauntors, sorcerers wch by pact & cōpact of fellowship & Conferenc had wth the Divell, do{e} vndertake to fortell the fates & destinyes of men & cōmon weales as if thinge lay in there power{illeg} & not rather in the Almighty as a peculiar reserv{ed} to him selfe <f. 62r> nowe because they \that/ cavell agaynst Astrologie alledge Hierom Basill Chrisost. Orig. as if they abhorred it & vtterly condēned it. we will a litle furthr examined these fathers on aftr anothr in there severall place. & first \we will begin wth/ where they alledge Hieron {sic} \he in his 25. quest c. 2/ as it is found in in 25 quest c. 2. where he \accompteth it/ accōpteth it amongst the reches of Egypt to witte to observe southsayings to require seek the courses of the stars & to search \out/ by them sutch events & things to come wch should happē to this we answere that it cleere & evident that he reveth astrologie sutch as is su eithr sustitions fond ridiculous magicall or meerly stoicall wc tyeth \ascribeth/ all things to the stars do as depending on them by fatall necessity wc opinion is \iustly/ cōdēned by them because it Depriveth man of all liberty & freedome in his actions & maketh god the author of sin in man. that this was there opinion Euseby will shewe you in his 3 booke de prparat evang. c. II Egyp they Egyptian Astrologers sayth he nostra quo oia, nescio quo insolubili vinculo a motu stella necessario dependere arbitrantur quā necessitatē fatū appellant they aff Egyptian Astrologers affirme, that all the affayres of men do necessarily depend on the stars. as if they were fast tyed \vnto them as it/ wth an indissoluble bonde wc necessity they call fate or fatall Destiny. to Basell vppō Genesis who sayth that this art is vanitas occupatissama yt is a vanity to mutch busied \a very busye vanitye/ we answere, that he speaketh of sutch astrologie as is over curious & occupied in vaine fond & foolish questions wc are altogeathr wthout the cōpas of that art or els his mind is to reve astrologie magicall or geomanticall fatuity. but thou wilt saye Chrisost in his 5 oration περι \εἰμαρμένης/ e{illeg}kar{illeg} e{illeg}nar{illeg}is if there be Astrologie genethliacall then there is no iudgment, then there is no fayth. then there is no god, then there is no vertue nor vice, then we doe all things fondly, & we suffre all things in vaine. then there is no place left for prayse or disprayse shame or grace or disgrace, then there can be no vse of lawes & iudgment seates wch place must needes be vnderstood \as all men may see/ of iudiciall astrologie wc arrogateth & calengeth to it selfe the knowledg & iudgment of all things \as Depending/ because they thinke that all things depend there on, by fatall and vnavoydable /necessitie\ or els the place concludeth not effectually agaynst astrologie. <f. 62v> The leeke may be answered to Orig21 {sic}

TAgaine they argue agaynst Astrologie by the authority of St Iherom c. 1. su Sophonā. vppō the first c{.} of Sophony. his words be these. hij sunt Thes{e are} they which list thē self vp against the knowledg of go{d} & all that wc is done in the world, feding themself with a fayned scienc they reserve all things to th{e} rising & setting of the stars following therin the {w}{illeg} errors of the mathematicians, furthr they alledg the {words of} St Iherom vppō the 47 of Esay where he writeth th{at} These are they who are cōmonly called & knowen by {the} name of Mathematici: of mathemat & by the course {illeg} of the stars doe suppose all humane affayres & me{ns} busines to be governed, & when they mise to others s{illeg} they themself knowe not there owne mishap. to th{ese} & sutch leeke places alledged out of St Iherom o{r} any othr of the fathr, we answere that St hie{rom} reveth only sutch astrologers as by there assertions {illeg} about to overthrowe the liberty & freedome of mans w{ill} & su make the will of man & his spirite \altogeathr/ subiect vn{der} the heavens. / that this was the opinion of they Chald{æ}ans may appeare if you read the Sixt booke of Euseb. de prpartione {sic} evang. c. 9. non solū gentiles s{tel}larum coiunctione {sic} at aspectu, quæ in terris sunt necessa{rio} accidere credunt, quā vim fatū appellant, verū etiam multi ex fidelib conturbantr, impossibile aliter fieri credēt{es} quā stella cursus effecerit wch he reciteth out of Origen in his cōmentary vppō genesis. not only saythe he the gentiles doe beleeve that all things {in} {on} earth doe happen \necessarily/ by the aspect & radiations of the stars, but also wc necessity they terme & call by the \na{me}/ of fate, but also many of the christian & faythfull s{er}{illeg} are of opinion mutch troubled herwith & are of opini{on} that it is altogeathr impossible that any thing shoulde happen on the earth otherwise then they stars ha{ve} caused whenc it followeth sayth he, that man hath no freedome of will at all & that no deede nor work of man is worthely to be commended or discōmended. wh{er}by it seemeth that Origen condēneth no othr astrology then the rest of the fathers did to witt that wc tyeth all things done on the earth to the stars as chayned therevnto by iron bonds of fatall necessitye.

<f. 63r>

yea Origene seemeth to be so farre of from cōdēming all respect had of astrologers to the heavens. that he graunteth that howesoever it be sayd that they heavenly bodyes doe not cause that be not causes working that which of necessity wch hapneth here beneath. that yet it may be sayd of them that they be signa ad significandū divinitus ordinata, signes that be by gods owne ordinaunc appoynted to signify even that wch sometimes is to come & herevppō he further concludeth that the heavens are \quasi/ liber atus as an open booke, contayning all things to come as it were written in them wch haps made Iacob to say thus vnto Ioseph legi in tabulis cæli quicquid quæcū contingent vobis et filijs vestris that is I have read at as it were written in the heavens as in a table booke or booke of destinye what things soever shall happen to you & yr children / so far Origen as Eusebius relateth out of him by nowe if this that is here answered were well marked, we should neede not to device any other answere to any thing that should be els alledged agaynst Astro the lawfull vse of Astrologie especially in the vse of physicke. but because we would be loath to leave any thinge that seemeth in the iudgment of the ignorant & tiall affected & forestalled wth priudice any way that maketh agaynst the lawfull vse of iudiciall astrologie, wch is the {illeg}very ordinaunc of god, so farre fourth as it l {sic} contayneth it selfe within the bounds of her fession & knowledge that they fathers of the church truely construed do not condēne no other iudiciall astrologie, then that wch tyeth all mans affayres to a fatall necessity, & not that othr wch whose \probable/ iudgment dependeth vppon the naturall course of the heavens wch is gods owne ordinanc appoynted & established by him selfe may if you doubt would be vnwilling to geve me so mutch Creditt. if neede were be ved by diverse learned writers of substanciall creditte. as Thomas of Aquine to on Reginald touching the iudgment of the stars. it is somewhat long that is there delivered I will therfore deliver the effect therof. his iudgment wc there he giveth is collected out altogeathr agreable vnto the doctors of the churche as he him selfe sheweth in that litle treatise his word be these. If any sayth he doe doe iudge by the stars, therby to foreshewe corporall & bodely effect{s} sutch as an tempest faire weathr health or the infirmityes of the bodye, plenty or scarcnes of fruict & sutch leeke wch sayth he doe depend on naturall causes sutch as are the celestiall bodyes then it seemeth to be no fault at all to vse any sutch iudgment <f. 63v> because sayth he most men in there iudgment take heed vnto the heavenly bodyes as maryners, housbandmen phisitions th{ere}fore it is a thing not vnconvenient to vse the iudgment of the stars or to give iudgment by the stars touching ef bodely. effec{ts} & infirmityes. but this in any case most be holden for a manner & principle of vndoubted \verity/ trueth that the will of {man} is not subiect to the stars to be necessarily governed there{by} of the same iudgment also is Antoninus that they father{s did} condēne fatall sustitions or magicall astrologie. otherw{ise} Antonin approveth of Astrology for this he sayth viz{illeg} sūmæ titul. 12. c. 10. §2. we are sayth he to vnderstand that they stars & heavenly bodyes doe imprint there influ{enc} vppō mens bodyes as well as other bodyes, yet not mens soules soe as men should be enforced by there c{onstel}lations of neces inevitable necessity to doe eithr good {or} bad. & so alledging reasons to approve it he concludeth th{us} Therfore sayth he they Constellations cannot directly {and} by them selfes move & alter the will & vnderstanding. but wh{en} we be borne vndr certen constellations, we receave a q{ua}lity Disposition & cōplexion of our bodyes & tly also from th{e} Condition of our parent that have begotten vs. whe{rfore} truely sayth Damasus that the diversity of planet ca{uses} diversityes of cōplexions. dispositions & habit. wherv{nto} we may boldly affirme, yt from our the Constellations {vn}dr wch men be borne, men receave there inclinations {&} diverse vices wch men endued wth reason may shuune, no man is of necessity cōpelled & by force cōpelled to doe eithr god or evill by the constellations. now this fata{ll} necessity ceding frō the stars this Antoninus confu{tes} by script reasons examples out of Ambrose Iherome & St. August. therby playnly shewing what the drift of the ancient fathers was when they wrote so sho{illeg} agaynst Astrology to wit that wc enthralleth man wth fatall & inevitable necessity. wc places of the f{a}thers may slightly & vnadvisedly con not considering {& vn}advisedly stretch to the Condēning of all bable gess{es} & coniecturs even by naturall meanes which they fath{ers} never dreamed of mutch les have cōdemned wth s{utch} eger word of reprhension concludat go ta phi, quā sct{i} theologi falsū ā imo hæreticū credere qod homo cogatr ad bene vel male faciendū ex constellationibus.


1 ‘Iosephus {illeg} of ye {illeg}itie of {illeg} l. 1. c. 3. {Antiq}uitatū {Iuda}icaū’ in the left margin

2 ‘b. Ioseph. l 1. c. 8.’ in the left margin

3 ‘Epigenes’ in the left margin

4 ‘Pliny h {sic} in his natur history l. 7 c. 56. Annius Viterbiensis in his cōment: vppon Beros the Chaddean. fol. 101.’ in the left margin

5 ‘Alexander {ye} historiographer {in} his story of the Iewes.’ in the left margin

6Peucerus {illeg}mia te {illeg}ētorū sphericorū. {illeg}1.’ in the left margin

7 ‘Garcæus de iudicijs in {astro}logo pag {illeg}.’ in the left margin

8De astrologiæ voluptate et cōmoditate’ in the left margin

9 ‘Anaxagoras’ in the left margin

10 ‘Thales Milesius’ in the left margin

11 ‘Iulius Cæsar.’ in the left margin

12 ‘Lucan poeta.’ in the left margin

13 ‘Tiberius Cæsar.’ in the left margin

14 ‘Dion the historiographer’ in the left margin

15Alexander imperator Romanus’ in the left margin

16 ‘Bardas the emperour /’ in the left margin

17Leo the emperour \Leo a learned mathematiciā/’ in the left margin

18 ‘Charels ye great’ in the left margin

19Alfonsus rex hispaniæ.’ in the left margin

20 ‘Charels {the} first worthy {em}perour’ in the left margin

21 ‘Orig: Hom 7 in Iosuā’ in the left margin

Transcribed text from MS Ashmole 204, ff. 50r-63v

Cite this as: Robert Ralley, Lauren Kassell, and Michael Hawkins (eds.), ‘A treatise touching the Defenc of Astrologie (fragment A)’, The casebooks of Simon Forman and Richard Napier, 1596–1634: a digital edition,, accessed 24 January 2021.